Internal change

PiperOrigin-RevId: 470978856
Change-Id: I7c0d88a0a17ddb19a063a6f7f4494818969cf610
diff --git a/LICENSE.GPL2 b/LICENSE.GPL2
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--- /dev/null
@@ -0,0 +1,339 @@
+		       Version 2, June 1991
+ Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
+ 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
+ Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
+ of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
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+  The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
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diff --git a/LICENSE.LGPL2.1 b/LICENSE.LGPL2.1
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4362b49
--- /dev/null
@@ -0,0 +1,502 @@
+                       Version 2.1, February 1999
+ Copyright (C) 1991, 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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+    <one line to give the library's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
+    Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>
+    This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
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+    License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
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+That's all there is to it!
diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..eeb0dbc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -0,0 +1,7 @@
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: LGPL-2.1-or-later
+	ninja -C build
+	DESTDIR=$(DESTDIR) ninja -C build install
diff --git a/NEWS b/NEWS
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..da5e6f8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/NEWS
@@ -0,0 +1,12876 @@
+systemd System and Service Manager
+        * When operating on disk images via the --image= switch of various
+          tools (such as systemd-nspawn or systemd-dissect), or when udev finds
+          no 'root=' parameter on the kernel command line, and multiple
+          suitable root or /usr/ partitions exist in the image, then a simple
+          comparison inspired by strverscmp() is done on the GPT partition
+          label, and the newest partition is picked. This permits a simple and
+          generic whole-file-system A/B update logic where new operating system
+          versions are dropped into partitions whose label is then updated with
+          a matching version identifier.
+        * systemd-sysusers now supports querying the passwords to set for the
+          users it creates via the "credentials" logic introduced in v247: the
+          passwd.hashed-password.<user> and passwd.plaintext-password.<user>
+          credentials are consulted for the password to use (either in UNIX
+          hashed form, or literally). By default these credentials are inherited
+          down from PID1 (which in turn imports it from a container manager if
+          there is one). This permits easy configuration of user passwords
+          during first boot. Example:
+          # systemd-nspawn -i foo.raw --volatile=yes --set-credential=passwd.plaintext-password.root:foo
+          Note that systemd-sysusers operates in purely additive mode: it
+          executes no operation if the declared users already exist, and hence
+          doesn't set any passwords as effect of the command line above if the
+          specified root user exists already in the image. (Note that
+          --volatile=yes ensures it doesn't, though.)
+        * systemd-firstboot now also supports querying various system
+          parameters via the credential subsystems. Thus, as above this may be
+          used to initialize important system parameters on first boot of
+          previously unprovisioned images (i.e. images with a mostly empty
+          /etc/).
+        * PID 1 may now show both the unit name and the unit description
+          strings in its status output during boot. This may be configured with
+          StatusUnitFormat=combined in system.conf or
+          systemd.status-unit-format=combined on the kernel command line.
+        * The systemd-machine-id-setup tool now supports a --image= switch for
+          provisioning a machine ID file into an OS disk image, similar to how
+          --root= operates on an OS file tree. This matches the existing switch
+          of the same name for systemd-tmpfiles, systemd-firstboot, and
+          systemd-sysusers tools.
+        * Similarly, systemd-repart gained support for the --image= switch too.
+          In combination with the existing --size= option, this makes the tool
+          particularly useful for easily growing disk images in a single
+          invocation, following the declarative rules included in the image
+          itself.
+        * systemd-repart's partition configuration files gained support for a
+          new switch MakeDirectories= which may be used to create arbitrary
+          directories inside file systems that are created, before registering
+          them in the partition table. This is useful in particular for root
+          partitions to create mount point directories for other partitions
+          included in the image. For example, a disk image that contains a
+          root, /home/, and /var/ partitions, may set MakeDirectories=yes to
+          create /home/ and /var/ as empty directories in the root file system
+          on its creation, so that the resulting image can be mounted
+          immediately, even in read-only mode.
+        * systemd-repart's CopyBlocks= setting gained support for the special
+          value "auto". If used, a suitable matching partition on the booted OS
+          is found as source to copy blocks from. This is useful when
+          implementing replicating installers, that are booted from one medium
+          and then stream their own root partition onto the target medium.
+        * systemd-repart's partition configuration files gained support for a
+          Flags=, a ReadOnly= and a NoAuto= setting, allowing control of these
+          GPT partition flags for the created partitions: this is useful for
+          marking newly created partitions as read-only, or as not being
+          subject for automatic mounting from creation on.
+        * The /etc/os-release file has been extended with two new (optional)
+          variables IMAGE_VERSION= and IMAGE_ID=, carrying identity and version
+          information for OS images that are updated comprehensively and
+          atomically as one image. Two new specifiers %M, %A now resolve to
+          these two fields in the various configuration options that resolve
+          specifiers.
+        * portablectl gained a new switch --extension= for enabling portable
+          service images with extensions that follow the extension image
+          concept introduced with v248, and thus allows layering multiple
+          images when setting up the root filesystem of the service.
+        * systemd-coredump will now extract ELF build-id information from
+          processes dumping core and include it in the coredump report.
+          Moreover, it will look for ELF .note.package sections with
+          distribution packaging meta-information about the crashing process.
+          This is useful to directly embed the rpm or deb (or any other)
+          package name and version in ELF files, making it easy to match
+          coredump reports with the specific package for which the software was
+          compiled. This is particularly useful on environments with ELF files
+          from multiple vendors, different distributions and versions, as is
+          common today in our containerized and sand-boxed world. For further
+          information, see:
+        * A new udev hardware database has been added for FireWire devices
+          (IEEE 1394).
+        * The "net_id" built-in of udev has been updated with three
+          backwards-incompatible changes:
+          - PCI hotplug slot names on s390 systems are now parsed as
+            hexadecimal numbers. They were incorrectly parsed as decimal
+            previously, or ignored if the name was not a valid decimal
+            number.
+          - PCI onboard indices up to 65535 are allowed. Previously, numbers
+            above 16383 were rejected. This primarily impacts s390 systems,
+            where values up to 65535 are used.
+          - Invalid characters in interface names are replaced with "_".
+          The new version of the net naming scheme is "v249". The previous
+          scheme can be selected via the "net.naming-scheme=v247" kernel
+          command line parameter.
+        * sd-bus' sd_bus_is_ready() and sd_bus_is_open() calls now accept a
+          NULL bus object, for which they will return false. Or in other words,
+          an unallocated bus connection is neither ready nor open.
+        * The sd-device API acquired a new API function
+          sd_device_get_usec_initialized() that returns the monotonic time when
+          the udev device first appeared in the database.
+        * sd-device gained a new APIs sd_device_trigger_with_uuid() and
+          sd_device_get_trigger_uuid(). The former is similar to
+          sd_device_trigger() but returns a randomly generated UUID that is
+          associated with the synthetic uevent generated by the call. This UUID
+          may be read from the sd_device object a monitor eventually receives,
+          via the sd_device_get_trigger_uuid(). This interface requires kernel
+          4.13 or above to work, and allows tracking a synthetic uevent through
+          the entire device management stack. The "udevadm trigger --settle"
+          logic has been updated to make use of this concept if available to
+          wait precisely for the uevents it generates. "udevadm trigger" also
+          gained a new parameter --uuid that prints the UUID for each generated
+          uevent.
+        * sd-device also gained new APIs sd_device_new_from_ifname() and
+          sd_device_new_from_ifindex() for allocating an sd-device object for
+          the specified network interface. The former accepts an interface name
+          (either a primary or an alternative name), the latter an interface
+          index.
+        * The native Journal protocol has been documented. Clients may talk
+          this as alternative to the classic BSD syslog protocol for locally
+          delivering log records to the Journal. The protocol has been stable
+          for a long time and in fact been implemented already in a variety
+          of alternative client libraries. This documentation makes the support
+          for that official:
+        * A new BPFProgram= setting has been added to service files. It may be
+          set to a path to a loaded kernel BPF program, i.e. a path to a bpffs
+          file, or a bind mount or symlink to one. This may be used to upload
+          and manage BPF programs externally and then hook arbitrary systemd
+          services into them.
+        * The "" domain that has been officially declared as the
+          choice for domain for local home networks per RFC 8375 has been added
+          to the default NTA list of resolved, since DNSSEC is generally not
+          available on private domains.
+        * The CPUAffinity= setting of unit files now resolves "%" specifiers.
+        * A new ManageForeignRoutingPolicyRules= setting has been added to
+          .network files which may be used to exclude foreign-created routing
+          policy rules from systemd-networkd management.
+        * systemd-network-wait-online gained two new switches -4 and -6 that
+          may be used to tweak whether to wait for only IPv4 or only IPv6
+          connectivity.
+        * .network files gained a new RequiredFamilyForOnline= setting to
+          fine-tune whether to require an IPv4 or IPv6 address in order to
+          consider an interface "online".
+        * networkctl will now show an over-all "online" state in the per-link
+          information.
+        * In .network files a new OutgoingInterface= setting has been added to
+          specify the output interface in bridge FDB setups.
+        * In .network files the Multipath group ID may now be configured for
+          [NextHop] entries, via the new Group= setting.
+        * The DHCP server logic configured in .network files gained a new
+          setting RelayTarget= that turns the server into a DHCP server relay.
+          The RelayAgentCircuitId= and RelayAgentRemoteId= settings may be used
+          to further tweak the DHCP relay behaviour.
+        * The DHCP server logic also gained a new ServerAddress= setting in
+          .network files that explicitly specifies the server IP address to
+          use. If not specified, the address is determined automatically, as
+          before.
+        * The DHCP server logic in systemd-networkd gained support for static
+          DHCP leases, configurable via the [DHCPServerStaticLease]
+          section. This allows explicitly mapping specific MAC addresses to
+          fixed IP addresses and vice versa.
+        * The RestrictAddressFamilies= setting in service files now supports a
+          new special value "none". If specified sockets of all address
+          families will be made unavailable to services configured that way.
+        * systemd-fstab-generator and systemd-repart have been updated to
+          support booting from disks that carry only a /usr/ partition but no
+          root partition yet, and where systemd-repart can add it in on the
+          first boot. This is useful for implementing systems that ship with a
+          single /usr/ file system, and whose root file system shall be set up
+          and formatted on a LUKS-encrypted volume whose key is generated
+          locally (and possibly enrolled in the TPM) during the first boot.
+        * The [Address] section of .network files now accepts a new
+          RouteMetric= setting that configures the routing metric to use for
+          the prefix route created as effect of the address configuration.
+          Similarly, the [DHCPv6PrefixDelegation] and [IPv6Prefix] sections
+          gained matching settings for their prefix routes. (The option of the
+          same name in the [DHCPv6] section is moved to [IPv6AcceptRA], since
+          it conceptually belongs there; the old option is still understood for
+          compatibility.)
+        * The DHCPv6 IAID and DUID are now explicitly configurable in .network
+          files.
+        * A new udev property ID_NET_DHCP_BROADCAST on network interface
+          devices is now honoured by systemd-networkd, controlling whether to
+          issue DHCP offers via broadcasting. This is used to ensure that s390
+          layer 3 network interfaces work out-of-the-box with systemd-networkd.
+        * nss-myhostname and systemd-resolved will now synthesize address
+          records for a new special hostname "_outbound". The name will always
+          resolve to the local IP addresses most likely used for outbound
+          connections towards the default routes. On multi-homed hosts this is
+          useful to have a stable handle referring to "the" local IP address
+          that matters most, to the point where this is defined.
+        * The Discoverable Partition Specification has been updated with a new
+          GPT partition flag "grow-file-system" defined for its partition
+          types. Whenever partitions with this flag set are automatically
+          mounted (i.e. via systemd-gpt-auto-generator or the --image= switch
+          of systemd-nspawn or other tools; and as opposed to explicit mounting
+          via /etc/fstab), the file system within the partition is
+          automatically grown to the full size of the partition. If the file
+          system size already matches the partition size this flag has no
+          effect. Previously, this functionality has been available via the
+          explicit x-systemd.growfs mount option, and this new flag extends
+          this to automatically discovered mounts. A new GrowFileSystem=
+          setting has been added to systemd-repart drop-in files that allows
+          configuring this partition flag. This new flag defaults to on for
+          partitions automatically created by systemd-repart, except if they
+          are marked read-only. See the specification for further details:
+        * .network files gained a new setting RoutesToNTP= in the [DHCPv4]
+          section. If enabled (which is the default), and an NTP server address
+          is acquired through a DHCP lease on this interface an explicit route
+          to this address is created on this interface to ensure that NTP
+          traffic to the NTP server acquired on an interface is also routed
+          through that interface. The pre-existing RoutesToDNS= setting that
+          implements the same for DNS servers is now enabled by default.
+        * A pair of service settings SocketBindAllow= + SocketBindDeny= have
+          been added that may be used to restrict the network interfaces
+          sockets created by the service may be bound to. This is implemented
+          via BPF.
+        * A new ConditionFirmware= setting has been added to unit files to
+          conditionalize on certain firmware features. At the moment it may
+          check whether running on an UEFI system, a device.tree system, or if
+          the system is compatible with some specified device-tree feature.
+        * A new ConditionOSRelease= setting has been added to unit files to
+          check os-release(5) fields. The "=", "!=", "<", "<=", ">=", ">"
+          operators may be used to check if some field has some specific value
+          or do an alphanumerical comparison. Equality comparisons are useful
+          for fields like ID, but relative comparisons for fields like
+        * hostnamed gained a new Describe() D-Bus method that returns a JSON
+          serialization of the host data it exposes. This is exposed via
+          "hostnamectl --json=" to acquire a host identity description in JSON.
+          It's our intention to add a similar features to most services and
+          objects systemd manages, in order to simplify integration with
+          program code that can consume JSON.
+        * Similarly, networkd gained a Describe() method on its Manager and
+          Link bus objects. This is exposed via "networkctl --json=".
+        * hostnamectl's various "get-xyz"/"set-xyz" verb pairs
+          (e.g. "hostnamectl get-hostname", "hostnamectl "set-hostname") have
+          been replaced by a single "xyz" verb (e.g. "hostnamectl hostname")
+          that is used both to get the value (when no argument is given), and
+          to set the value (when an argument is specified). The old names
+          continue to be supported for compatibility.
+        * systemd-detect-virt and ConditionVirtualization= are now able to
+          correctly identify Amazon EC2 environments.
+        * The LogLevelMax= setting of unit files now applies not only to log
+          messages generated *by* the service, but also to log messages
+          generated *about* the service by PID 1. To suppress logs concerning a
+          specific service comprehensively, set this option to a high log
+          level.
+        * bootctl gained support for a new --make-machine-id-directory= switch
+          that allows precise control on whether to create the top-level
+          per-machine directory in the boot partition that typically contains
+          Type 1 boot loader entries.
+        * During build SBAT data to include in the systemd-boot EFI PE binaries
+          may be specified now.
+        * /etc/crypttab learnt a new option "headless". If specified any
+          requests to query the user interactively for passwords or PINs will
+          be skipped. This is useful on systems that are headless, i.e. where
+          an interactive user is generally not present.
+        * /etc/crypttab also learnt a new option "password-echo=" that allows
+          configuring whether the encryption password prompt shall echo the
+          typed password and if so, do so literally or via asterisks. (The
+          default is the same behaviour as before: provide echo feedback via
+          asterisks.)
+        * FIDO2 support in systemd-cryptenroll/systemd-cryptsetup and
+          systemd-homed has been updated to allow explicit configuration of the
+          "user presence" and "user verification" checks, as well as whether a
+          PIN is required for authentication, via the new switches
+          --fido2-with-user-presence=, --fido2-with-user-verification=,
+          --fido2-with-client-pin= to systemd-cryptenroll and homectl. Which
+          features are available, and may be enabled or disabled depends on the
+          used FIDO2 token.
+        * systemd-nspawn's --private-user= switch now accepts the special value
+          "identity" which configures a user namespacing environment with an
+          identity mapping of 65535 UIDs. This means the container UID 0 is
+          mapped to the host UID 0, and the UID 1 to host UID 1. On first look
+          this doesn't appear to be useful, however it does reduce the attack
+          surface a bit, since the resulting container will possess process
+          capabilities only within its namespace and not on the host.
+        * systemd-nspawn's --private-user-chown switch has been replaced by a
+          more generic --private-user-ownership= switch that accepts one of
+          three values: "chown" is equivalent to the old --private-user-chown,
+          and "off" is equivalent to the absence of the old switch. The value
+          "map" uses the new UID mapping mounts of Linux 5.12 to map ownership
+          of files and directories of the underlying image to the chosen UID
+          range for the container. "auto" is equivalent to "map" if UID mapping
+          mount are supported, otherwise it is equivalent to "chown". The short
+          -U switch systemd-nspawn now implies --private-user-ownership=auto
+          instead of the old --private-user-chown. Effectively this means: if
+          the backing file system supports UID mapping mounts the feature is
+          now used by default if -U is used. Generally, it's a good idea to use
+          UID mapping mounts instead of recursive chown()ing, since it allows
+          running containers off immutable images (since no modifications of
+          the images need to take place), and share images between multiple
+          instances. Moreover, the recursive chown()ing operation is slow and
+          can be avoided. Conceptually it's also a good thing if transient UID
+          range uses do not leak into persistent file ownership anymore. TLDR:
+          finally, the last major drawback of user namespacing has been
+          removed, and -U should always be used (unless you use btrfs, where
+          UID mapped mounts do not exist; or your container actually needs
+          privileges on the host).
+        * nss-systemd now synthesizes user and group shadow records in addition
+          to the main user and group records. Thus, hashed passwords managed by
+          systemd-homed are now accessible via the shadow database.
+        * The userdb logic (and thus nss-systemd, and so on) now read
+          additional user/group definitions in JSON format from the drop-in
+          directories /etc/userdb/, /run/userdb/, /run/host/userdb/ and
+          /usr/lib/userdb/. This is a simple and powerful mechanism for making
+          additional users available to the system, with full integration into
+          NSS including the shadow databases. Since the full JSON user/group
+          record format is supported this may also be used to define users with
+          resource management settings and other runtime settings that
+          pam_systemd and systemd-logind enforce at login.
+        * The userdbctl tool gained two new switches --with-dropin= and
+          --with-varlink= which can be used to fine-tune the sources used for
+          user database lookups.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new switch --bind-user= for binding a host
+          user account into the container. This does three things: the user's
+          home directory is bind mounted from the host into the container,
+          below the /run/userdb/home/ hierarchy. A free UID is picked in the
+          container, and a user namespacing UID mapping to the host user's UID
+          installed. And finally, a minimal JSON user and group record (along
+          with its hashed password) is dropped into /run/host/userdb/. These
+          records are picked up automatically by the userdb drop-in logic
+          describe above, and allow the user to login with the same password as
+          on the host. Effectively this means: if host and container run new
+          enough systemd versions making a host user available to the container
+          is trivially simple.
+        * systemd-journal-gatewayd now supports the switches --user, --system,
+          --merge, --file= that are equivalent to the same switches of
+          journalctl, and permit exposing only the specified subset of the
+          Journal records.
+        * The OnFailure= dependency between units is now augmented with a
+          implicit reverse dependency OnFailureOf= (this new dependency cannot
+          be configured directly it's only created as effect of an OnFailure=
+          dependency in the reverse order — it's visible in "systemctl show"
+          however). Similar, Slice= now has an reverse dependency SliceOf=,
+          that is also not configurable directly, but useful to determine all
+          units that are members of a slice.
+        * A pair of new dependency types between units PropagatesStopTo= +
+          StopPropagatedFrom= has been added, that allows propagation of unit
+          stop events between two units. It operates similar to the existing
+          PropagatesReloadTo= + ReloadPropagatedFrom= dependencies.
+        * A new dependency type OnSuccess= has been added (plus the reverse
+          dependency OnSuccessOf=, which cannot be configured directly, but
+          exists only as effect of the reverse OnSuccess=). It is similar to
+          OnFailure=, but triggers in the opposite case: when a service exits
+          cleanly. This allows "chaining up" of services where one or more
+          services are started once another service has successfully completed.
+        * A new dependency type Upholds= has been added (plus the reverse
+          dependency UpheldBy=, which cannot be configured directly, but exists
+          only as effect of Upholds=). This dependency type is a stronger form
+          of Wants=: if a unit has an UpHolds= dependency on some other unit
+          and the former is active then the latter is started whenever it is
+          found inactive (and no job is queued for it). This is an alternative
+          to Restart= inside service units, but less configurable, and the
+          request to uphold a unit is not encoded in the unit itself but in
+          another unit that intends to uphold it.
+        * The systemd-ask-password tool now also supports reading passwords
+          from the credentials subsystem, via the new --credential= switch.
+        * The systemd-ask-password tool learnt a new switch --emoji= which may
+          be used to explicit control whether the lock and key emoji (🔐) is
+          shown in the password prompt on suitable TTYs.
+        * The --echo switch of systemd-ask-password now optionally takes a
+          parameter that controls character echo. It may either show asterisks
+          (default, as before), turn echo off entirely, or echo the typed
+          characters literally.
+        * The systemd-ask-password tool also gained a new -n switch for
+          suppressing output of a trailing newline character when writing the
+          acquired password to standard output, similar to /bin/echo's -n
+          switch.
+        * New documentation has been added that describes the organization of
+          the systemd source code tree:
+        * Units using ConditionNeedsUpdate= will no longer be activated in
+          the initrd.
+        * It is now possible to list a template unit in the WantedBy= or
+          RequiredBy= settings of the [Install] section of another template
+          unit, which will be instantiated using the same instance name.
+        * A new MemoryAvailable property is available for units. If the unit,
+          or the slice(s) it is part of, have a memory limit set via MemoryMax=/
+          MemoryHigh=, MemoryAvailable will indicate how much more memory the
+          unit can claim before hitting the limit(s).
+        * systemd-coredump will now try to stay below the cgroup memory limit
+          placed on itself or one of the slices it runs under, if the storage
+          area for core files (/var/lib/systemd/coredump/) is placed on a tmpfs,
+          since files written on such filesystems count toward the cgroup memory
+          limit. If there is not enough available memory in such cases to store
+          the core file uncompressed, systemd-coredump will skip to compressed
+          storage directly (if enabled) and it will avoid analyzing the core file
+          to print backtrace and metadata in the journal.
+        * tmpfiles.d/ drop-ins gained a new '=' modifier to check if the type
+          of a path matches the configured expectations, and remove it if not.
+        * tmpfiles.d/'s 'Age' now accepts an 'age-by' argument, which allows to
+          specify which of the several available filesystem timestamps (access
+          time, birth time, change time, modification time) to look at when
+          deciding whether a path has aged enough to be cleaned.
+        * A new IPv6StableSecretAddress= setting has been added to .network
+          files, which takes an IPv6 address to use as secret for IPv6 address
+          generation.
+        * The [DHCPServer] logic in .network files gained support for a new
+          UplinkInterface= setting that permits configuration of the uplink
+          interface name to propagate DHCP lease information from.
+        * The WakeOnLan= setting in .link files now accepts a list of flags
+          instead of a single one, to configure multiple wake-on-LAN policies.
+        * User-space defined tracepoints (USDT) have been added to udev at
+          strategic locations. This is useful for tracing udev behaviour and
+          performance with bpftrace and similar tools.
+        * systemd-journald-upload gained a new NetworkTimeoutSec= option for
+          setting a network timeout time.
+        * If a system service is running in a new mount namespace (RootDirectory=
+          and friends), all file systems will be mounted with MS_NOSUID by
+          default, unless the system is running with SELinux enabled.
+        * When enumerating time zones the timedatectl tool will now consult the
+          'tzdata.zi' file shipped by the IANA time zone database package, in
+          addition to '', as before. This makes sure time zone
+          aliases are now correctly supported. Some distributions so far did
+          not install this additional file, most do however. If you
+          distribution does not install it yet, it might make sense to change
+          that.
+        Contributions from: Aakash Singh, adrian5, Albert Brox,
+        Alexander Sverdlin, Alexander Tsoy, Alexey Rubtsov, alexlzhu,
+        Allen Webb, Alvin Šipraga, Alyssa Ross, Anders Wenhaug,
+        Andrea Pappacoda, Anita Zhang, asavah, Balint Reczey, Bertrand Jacquin,
+        borna-blazevic, caoxia2008cxx, Carlo Teubner, Christian Göttsche,
+        Christian Hesse, Daniel Schaefer, Dan Streetman,
+        David Santamaría Rogado, David Tardon, Deepak Rawat, dgcampea,
+        Dimitri John Ledkov, ei-ke, Emilio Herrera, Emil Renner Berthing,
+        Eric Cook, Flos Lonicerae, Franck Bui, Francois Gervais,
+        Frantisek Sumsal, Gibeom Gwon, gitm0, Hamish Moffatt, Hans de Goede,
+        Harsh Barsaiyan, Henri Chain, Hristo Venev, Icenowy Zheng, Igor Zhbanov,
+        imayoda, Jakub Warczarek, James Buren, Jan Janssen, Jan Macku,
+        Jan Synacek, Jason Francis, Jayanth Ananthapadmanaban, Jeremy Szu,
+        Jérôme Carretero, Jesse Stricker, jiangchuangang, Joerg Behrmann,
+        Jóhann B. Guðmundsson, Jörg Deckert, Jörg Thalheim, Juergen Hoetzel,
+        Julia Kartseva, Kai-Heng Feng, Khem Raj, KoyamaSohei, laineantti,
+        Lennart Poettering, LetzteInstanz, Luca Adrian L, Luca Boccassi,
+        Lucas Magasweran, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marco Antonio Mauro, Mark Wielaard,
+        Masahiro Matsuya, Matt Johnston, Michael Catanzaro, Michal Koutný,
+        Michal Sekletár, Mike Crowe, Mike Kazantsev, Milan, milaq,
+        Miroslav Suchý, Morten Linderud, nerdopolis, nl6720, Noah Meyerhans,
+        Oleg Popov, Olle Lundberg, Ondrej Kozina, Paweł Marciniak, Perry.Yuan,
+        Peter Hutterer, Peter Kjellerstedt, Peter Morrow, Phaedrus Leeds,
+        plattrap, qhill, Raul Tambre, Roman Beranek, Roshan Shariff,
+        Ryan Hendrickson, Samuel BF, scootergrisen, Sebastian Blunt,
+        Seong-ho Cho, Sergey Bugaev, Sevan Janiyan, Sibo Dong, simmon,
+        Simon Watts, Srinidhi Kaushik, Štěpán Němec, Steve Bonds, Susant Sahani,
+        sverdlin, syyhao1994, Takashi Sakamoto, Topi Miettinen, tramsay,
+        Trent Piepho, Uwe Kleine-König, Viktor Mihajlovski, Vincent Dechenaux,
+        Vito Caputo, William A. Kennington III, Yangyang Shen, Yegor Alexeyev,
+        Yi Gao, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, zsien, наб
+        — Edinburgh, 2021-07-07
+        * A concept of system extension images is introduced. Such images may
+          be used to extend the /usr/ and /opt/ directory hierarchies at
+          runtime with additional files (even if the file system is read-only).
+          When a system extension image is activated, its /usr/ and /opt/
+          hierarchies and os-release information are combined via overlayfs
+          with the file system hierarchy of the host OS.
+          A new systemd-sysext tool can be used to merge, unmerge, list, and
+          refresh system extension hierarchies. See
+          The systemd-sysext.service automatically merges installed system
+          extensions during boot (before, but not in very early
+          boot, since various file systems have to be mounted first).
+          The SYSEXT_LEVEL= field in os-release(5) may be used to specify the
+          supported system extension level.
+        * A new ExtensionImages= unit setting can be used to apply the same
+          system extension image concept from systemd-sysext to the namespaced
+          file hierarchy of specific services, following the same rules and
+          constraints.
+        * Support for a new special "root=tmpfs" kernel command-line option has
+          been added. When specified, a tmpfs is mounted on /, and mount.usr=
+          should be used to point to the operating system implementation.
+        * A new configuration file /etc/veritytab may be used to configure
+          dm-verity integrity protection for block devices. Each line is in the
+          format "volume-name data-device hash-device roothash options",
+          similar to /etc/crypttab.
+        * A new kernel command-line option systemd.verity.root_options= may be
+          used to configure dm-verity behaviour for the root device.
+        * The key file specified in /etc/crypttab (the third field) may now
+          refer to an AF_UNIX/SOCK_STREAM socket in the file system. The key is
+          acquired by connecting to that socket and reading from it. This
+          allows the implementation of a service to provide key information
+          dynamically, at the moment when it is needed.
+        * When the hostname is set explicitly to "localhost", systemd-hostnamed
+          will respect this. Previously such a setting would be mostly silently
+          ignored. The goal is to honour configuration as specified by the
+          user.
+        * The fallback hostname that will be used by the system manager and
+          systemd-hostnamed can now be configured in two new ways: by setting
+          DEFAULT_HOSTNAME= in os-release(5), or by setting
+          $SYSTEMD_DEFAULT_HOSTNAME in the environment block. As before, it can
+          also be configured during compilation. The environment variable is
+          intended for testing and local overrides, the os-release(5) field is
+          intended to allow customization by different variants of a
+          distribution that share the same compiled packages.
+        * The environment block of the manager itself may be configured through
+          a new ManagerEnvironment= setting in system.conf or user.conf. This
+          complements existing ways to set the environment block (the kernel
+          command line for the system manager, the inherited environment and
+          user@.service unit file settings for the user manager).
+        * systemd-hostnamed now exports the default hostname and the source of
+          the configured hostname ("static", "transient", or "default") as
+          D-Bus properties.
+        * systemd-hostnamed now exports the "HardwareVendor" and
+          "HardwareModel" D-Bus properties, which are supposed to contain a
+          pair of cleaned up, human readable strings describing the system's
+          vendor and model. It's typically sourced from the firmware's DMI
+          tables, but may be augmented from a new hwdb database. hostnamectl
+          shows this in the status output.
+        * Support has been added to systemd-cryptsetup for extracting the
+          PKCS#11 token URI and encrypted key from the LUKS2 JSON embedded
+          metadata header. This allows the information how to open the
+          encrypted device to be embedded directly in the device and obviates
+          the need for configuration in an external file.
+        * systemd-cryptsetup gained support for unlocking LUKS2 volumes using
+          TPM2 hardware, as well as FIDO2 security tokens (in addition to the
+          pre-existing support for PKCS#11 security tokens).
+        * systemd-repart may enroll encrypted partitions using TPM2
+          hardware. This may be useful for example to create an encrypted /var
+          partition bound to the machine on first boot.
+        * A new systemd-cryptenroll tool has been added to enroll TPM2, FIDO2
+          and PKCS#11 security tokens to LUKS volumes, list and destroy
+          them. See:
+          It also supports enrolling "recovery keys" and regular passphrases.
+        * The libfido2 dependency is now based on dlopen(), so that the library
+          is used at runtime when installed, but is not a hard runtime
+          dependency.
+        * systemd-cryptsetup gained support for two new options in
+          /etc/crypttab: "no-write-workqueue" and "no-read-workqueue" which
+          request synchronous processing of encryption/decryption IO.
+        * The manager may be configured at compile time to use the fexecve()
+          instead of the execve() system call when spawning processes. Using
+          fexecve() closes a window between checking the security context of an
+          executable and spawning it, but unfortunately the kernel displays
+          stale information in the process' "comm" field, which impacts ps
+          output and such.
+        * The configuration option -Dcompat-gateway-hostname has been dropped.
+          "_gateway" is now the only supported name.
+        * The ConditionSecurity=tpm2 unit file setting may be used to check if
+          the system has at least one TPM2 (tpmrm class) device.
+        * A new ConditionCPUFeature= has been added that may be used to
+          conditionalize units based on CPU features. For example,
+          ConditionCPUFeature=rdrand will condition a unit so that it is only
+          run when the system CPU supports the RDRAND opcode.
+        * The existing ConditionControlGroupController= setting has been
+          extended with two new values "v1" and "v2". "v2" means that the
+          unified v2 cgroup hierarchy is used, and "v1" means that legacy v1
+          hierarchy or the hybrid hierarchy are used.
+        * A new PrivateIPC= setting on a unit file allows executed processes to
+          be moved into a private IPC namespace, with separate System V IPC
+          identifiers and POSIX message queues.
+          A new IPCNamespacePath= allows the unit to be joined to an existing
+          IPC namespace.
+        * The tables of system calls in seccomp filters are now automatically
+          generated from kernel lists exported on
+          The following architectures should now have complete lists:
+          alpha, arc, arm64, arm, i386, ia64, m68k, mips64n32, mips64, mipso32,
+          powerpc, powerpc64, s390, s390x, tilegx, sparc, x86_64, x32.
+        * The MountAPIVFS= service file setting now additionally mounts a tmpfs
+          on /run/ if it is not already a mount point. A writable /run/ has
+          always been a requirement for a functioning system, but this was not
+          guaranteed when using a read-only image.
+          Users can always specify BindPaths= or InaccessiblePaths= as
+          overrides, and they will take precedence. If the host's root mount
+          point is used, there is no change in behaviour.
+        * New bind mounts and file system image mounts may be injected into the
+          mount namespace of a service (without restarting it). This is exposed
+          respectively as 'systemctl bind <unit> <path>…' and
+          'systemctl mount-image <unit> <image>…'.
+        * The StandardOutput= and StandardError= settings can now specify files
+          to be truncated for output (as "truncate:<path>").
+        * The ExecPaths= and NoExecPaths= settings may be used to specify
+          noexec for parts of the file system.
+        * sd-bus has a new function sd_bus_open_user_machine() to open a
+          connection to the session bus of a specific user in a local container
+          or on the local host. This is exposed in the existing -M switch to
+          systemctl and similar tools:
+              systemctl --user -M lennart@foobar start foo
+          This will connect to the user bus of a user "lennart" in container
+          "foobar". If no container name is specified, the specified user on
+          the host itself is connected to
+              systemctl --user -M lennart@ start quux
+        * sd-bus also gained a convenience function sd_bus_message_send() to
+          simplify invocations of sd_bus_send(), taking only a single
+          parameter: the message to send.
+        * sd-event allows rate limits to be set on event sources, for dealing
+          with high-priority event sources that might starve out others. See
+          the new man page sd_event_source_set_ratelimit(3) for details.
+        * files gained a [Link] Promiscuous= switch, which allows
+          the device to be raised in promiscuous mode.
+          New [Link] TransmitQueues= and ReceiveQueues= settings allow the
+          number of TX and RX queues to be configured.
+          New [Link] TransmitQueueLength= setting allows the size of the TX
+          queue to be configured.
+          New [Link] GenericSegmentOffloadMaxBytes= and
+          GenericSegmentOffloadMaxSegments= allow capping the packet size and
+          the number of segments accepted in Generic Segment Offload.
+        * systemd-networkd gained support for the "B.A.T.M.A.N. advanced"
+          wireless routing protocol that operates on ISO/OSI Layer 2 only and
+          uses ethernet frames to route/bridge packets. This encompasses a new
+          "batadv" netdev Type=, a new [BatmanAdvanced] section with a bunch of
+          new settings in .netdev files, and a new BatmanAdvanced= setting in
+          .network files.
+        * files gained a [Network] RouteTable= configuration
+          switch to select the routing policy table.
+ files gained a [RoutingPolicyRule] Type=
+          configuration switch (one of "blackhole, "unreachable", "prohibit").
+ files gained a [IPv6AcceptRA] RouteDenyList= and
+          RouteAllowList= settings to ignore/accept route advertisements from
+          routers matching specified prefixes. The DenyList= setting has been
+          renamed to PrefixDenyList= and a new PrefixAllowList= option has been
+          added.
+ files gained a [DHCPv6] UseAddress= setting to
+          optionally ignore the address provided in the lease.
+ files gained a [DHCPv6PrefixDelegation]
+          ManageTemporaryAddress= switch.
+ files gained a new ActivationPolicy= setting which
+          allows configuring how the UP state of an interface shall be managed,
+          i.e. whether the interface is always upped, always downed, or may be
+          upped/downed by the user using "ip link set dev".
+        * The default for the Broadcast= setting in .network files has slightly
+          changed: the broadcast address will not be configured for wireguard
+          devices.
+        * systemd.netdev files gained a [VLAN] Protocol=, IngressQOSMaps=,
+          EgressQOSMaps=, and [MACVLAN] BroadcastMulticastQueueLength=
+          configuration options for VLAN packet handling.
+        * udev rules may now set log_level= option. This allows debug logs to
+          be enabled for select events, e.g. just for a specific subsystem or
+          even a single device.
+        * udev now exports the VOLUME_ID, LOGICAL_VOLUME_ID, VOLUME_SET_ID, and
+          DATA_PREPARED_ID properties for block devices with ISO9660 file
+          systems.
+        * udev now exports decoded DMI information about installed memory slots
+          as device properties under the /sys/class/dmi/id/ pseudo device.
+        * /dev/ is not mounted noexec anymore. This didn't provide any
+          significant security benefits and would conflict with the executable
+          mappings used with /dev/sgx device nodes. The previous behaviour can
+          be restored for individual services with NoExecPaths=/dev (or by allow-
+          listing and excluding /dev from ExecPaths=).
+        * Permissions for /dev/vsock are now set to 0o666, and /dev/vhost-vsock
+          and /dev/vhost-net are owned by the kvm group.
+        * The hardware database has been extended with a list of fingerprint
+          readers that correctly support USB auto-suspend using data from
+          libfprint.
+        * systemd-resolved can now answer DNSSEC questions through the stub
+          resolver interface in a way that allows local clients to do DNSSEC
+          validation themselves. For a question with DO+CD set, it'll proxy the
+          DNS query and respond with a mostly unmodified packet received from
+          the upstream server.
+        * systemd-resolved learnt a new boolean option CacheFromLocalhost= in
+          resolved.conf. If true the service will provide caching even for DNS
+          lookups made to an upstream DNS server on the
+          addresses. By default (and when the option is false) systemd-resolved
+          will not cache such lookups, in order to avoid duplicate local
+          caching, under the assumption the local upstream server caches
+          anyway.
+        * systemd-resolved now implements RFC5001 NSID in its local DNS
+          stub. This may be used by local clients to determine whether they are
+          talking to the DNS resolver stub or a different DNS server.
+        * When resolving host names and other records resolvectl will now
+          report where the data was acquired from (i.e. the local cache, the
+          network, locally synthesized, …) and whether the network traffic it
+          effected was encrypted or not. Moreover the tool acquired a number of
+          new options --cache=, --synthesize=, --network=, --zone=,
+          --trust-anchor=, --validate= that take booleans and may be used to
+          tweak a lookup, i.e. whether it may be answered from cached
+          information, locally synthesized information, information acquired
+          through the network, the local mDNS/LLMNR zone, the DNSSEC trust
+          anchor, and whether DNSSEC validation shall be executed for the
+          lookup.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --ambient-capability= setting
+          (AmbientCapability= in .nspawn files) to configure ambient
+          capabilities passed to the container payload.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained the ability to configure the firewall using the
+          nftables subsystem (in addition to the existing iptables
+          support). Similarly, systemd-networkd's IPMasquerade= option now
+          supports nftables as back-end, too. In both cases NAT on IPv6 is now
+          supported too, in addition to IPv4 (the iptables back-end still is
+          IPv4-only).
+          "IPMasquerade=yes", which was the same as "IPMasquerade=ipv4" before,
+          retains its meaning, but has been deprecated. Please switch to either
+          "ivp4" or "both" (if covering IPv6 is desired).
+        * systemd-importd will now download .verity and .roothash.p7s files
+          along with the machine image (as exposed via machinectl pull-raw).
+        * systemd-oomd now gained a new DefaultMemoryPressureDurationSec=
+          setting to configure the time a unit's cgroup needs to exceed memory
+          pressure limits before action will be taken, and a new
+          ManagedOOMPreference=none|avoid|omit setting to avoid killing certain
+          units.
+          systemd-oomd is now considered fully supported (the usual
+          backwards-compatiblity promises apply). Swap is not required for
+          operation, but it is still recommended.
+        * systemd-timesyncd gained a new ConnectionRetrySec= setting which
+          configures the retry delay when trying to contact servers.
+        * systemd-stdio-bridge gained --system/--user options to connect to the
+          system bus (previous default) or the user session bus.
+        * systemd-localed may now call locale-gen to generate missing locales
+          on-demand (UTF-8-only). This improves integration with Debian-based
+          distributions (Debian/Ubuntu/PureOS/Tanglu/...) and Arch Linux.
+        * systemctl --check-inhibitors=true may now be used to obey inhibitors
+          even when invoked non-interactively. The old --ignore-inhibitors
+          switch is now deprecated and replaced by --check-inhibitors=false.
+        * systemctl import-environment will now emit a warning when called
+          without any arguments (i.e. to import the full environment block of
+          the called program). This command will usually be invoked from a
+          shell, which means that it'll inherit a bunch of variables which are
+          specific to that shell, and usually to the TTY the shell is connected
+          to, and don't have any meaning in the global context of the system or
+          user service manager. Instead, only specific variables should be
+          imported into the manager environment block.
+          Similarly, programs which update the manager environment block by
+          directly calling the D-Bus API of the manager, should also push
+          specific variables, and not the full inherited environment.
+        * systemctl's status output now shows unit state with a more careful
+          choice of Unicode characters: units in maintenance show a "○" symbol
+          instead of the usual "●", failed units show "×", and services being
+          reloaded "↻".
+        * coredumpctl gained a --debugger-arguments= switch to pass arguments
+          to the debugger. It also gained support for showing coredump info in
+          a simple JSON format.
+        * systemctl/loginctl/machinectl's --signal= option now accept a special
+          value "list", which may be used to show a brief table with known
+          process signals and their numbers.
+        * networkctl now shows the link activation policy in status.
+        * Various tools gained --pager/--no-pager/--json= switches to
+          enable/disable the pager and provide JSON output.
+        * Various tools now accept two new values for the SYSTEMD_COLORS
+          environment variable: "16" and "256", to configure how many terminal
+          colors are used in output.
+        * less 568 or newer is now required for the auto-paging logic of the
+          various tools. Hyperlink ANSI sequences in terminal output are now
+          used even if a pager is used, and older versions of less are not able
+          to display these sequences correctly. SYSTEMD_URLIFY=0 may be used to
+          disable this output again.
+        * Builds with support for separate / and /usr/ hierarchies ("split-usr"
+          builds, non-merged-usr builds) are now officially deprecated. A
+          warning is emitted during build. Support is slated to be removed in
+          about a year (when the Debian Bookworm release development starts).
+        * Systems with the legacy cgroup v1 hierarchy are now marked as
+          "tainted", to make it clearer that using the legacy hierarchy is not
+          recommended.
+        * systemd-localed will now refuse to configure a keymap which is not
+          installed in the file system. This is intended as a bug fix, but
+          could break cases where systemd-localed was used to configure the
+          keymap in advanced of it being installed. It is necessary to install
+          the keymap file first.
+        * The main git development branch has been renamed to 'main'.
+        * mmcblk[0-9]boot[0-9] devices will no longer be probed automatically
+          for partitions, as in the vast majority of cases they contain none
+          and are used internally by the bootloader (eg: uboot).
+        * systemd will now set the $SYSTEMD_EXEC_PID environment variable for
+          spawned processes to the PID of the process itself. This may be used
+          by programs for detecting whether they were forked off by the service
+          manager itself or are a process forked off further down the tree.
+        * The sd-device API gained four new calls: sd_device_get_action() to
+          determine the uevent add/remove/change/… action the device object has
+          been seen for, sd_device_get_seqno() to determine the uevent sequence
+          number, sd_device_new_from_stat_rdev() to allocate a new sd_device
+          object from stat(2) data of a device node, and sd_device_trigger() to
+          write to the 'uevent' attribute of a device.
+        * For most tools the --no-legend= switch has been replaced by
+          --legend=no and --legend=yes, to force whether tables are shown with
+          headers/legends.
+        * Units acquired a new property "Markers" that takes a list of zero,
+          one or two of the following strings: "needs-reload" and
+          "needs-restart". These markers may be set via "systemctl
+          set-property". Once a marker is set, "systemctl reload-or-restart
+          --marked" may be invoked to execute the operation the units are
+          marked for. This is useful for package managers that want to mark
+          units for restart/reload while updating, but effect the actual
+          operations at a later step at once.
+        * The sd_bus_message_read_strv() API call of sd-bus may now also be
+          used to parse arrays of D-Bus signatures and D-Bus paths, in addition
+          to regular strings.
+        * bootctl will now report whether the UEFI firmware used a TPM2 device
+          and measured the boot process into it.
+        * systemd-tmpfiles learnt support for a new environment variable
+          $SYSTEMD_TMPFILES_FORCE_SUBVOL which takes a boolean value. If true
+          the v/q/Q lines in tmpfiles.d/ snippets will create btrfs subvolumes
+          even if the root fs of the system is not itself a btrfs volume.
+        * systemd-detect-virt/ConditionVirtualization= will now explicitly
+          detect Docker/Podman environments where possible. Moreover, they
+          should be able to generically detect any container manager as long as
+          it assigns the container a cgroup.
+        * portablectl gained a new "reattach" verb for detaching/reattaching a
+          portable service image, useful for updating images on-the-fly.
+        * Intel SGX enclave device nodes (which expose a security feature of
+          newer Intel CPUs) will now be owned by a new system group "sgx".
+        Contributions from: Adam Nielsen, Adrian Vovk, AJ Jordan, Alan Perry,
+        Alastair Pharo, Alexander Batischev, Ali Abdallah, Andrew Balmos,
+        Anita Zhang, Annika Wickert, Ansgar Burchardt, Antonio Terceiro,
+        Antonius Frie, Ardy, Arian van Putten, Ariel Fermani, Arnaud T,
+        A S Alam, Bastien Nocera, Benjamin Berg, Benjamin Robin, Björn Daase,
+        caoxia, Carlo Wood, Charles Lee, ChopperRob, chri2, Christian Ehrhardt,
+        Christian Hesse, Christopher Obbard, clayton craft, corvusnix, cprn,
+        Daan De Meyer, Daniele Medri, Daniel Rusek, Dan Sanders, Dan Streetman,
+        Darren Ng, David Edmundson, David Tardon, Deepak Rawat, Devon Pringle,
+        Dmitry Borodaenko, dropsignal, Einsler Lee, Endre Szabo,
+        Evgeny Vereshchagin, Fabian Affolter, Fangrui Song, Felipe Borges,
+        feliperodriguesfr, Felix Stupp, Florian Hülsmann, Florian Klink,
+        Florian Westphal, Franck Bui, Frantisek Sumsal, Gablegritule,
+        Gaël PORTAY, Gaurav, Giedrius Statkevičius, Greg Depoire-Ferrer,
+        Gustavo Costa, Hans de Goede, Hela Basa, heretoenhance, hide,
+        Iago López Galeiras, igo95862, Ilya Dmitrichenko, Jameer Pathan,
+        Jan Tojnar, Jiehong, Jinyuan Si, Joerg Behrmann, John Slade,
+        Jonathan G. Underwood, Jonathan McDowell, Josh Triplett, Joshua Watt,
+        Julia Cartwright, Julien Humbert, Kairui Song, Karel Zak,
+        Kevin Backhouse, Kevin P. Fleming, Khem Raj, Konomi, krissgjeng,
+        l4gfcm, Lajos Veres, Lennart Poettering, Lincoln Ramsay, Luca Boccassi,
+        Luca BRUNO, Lucas Werkmeister, Luka Kudra, Luna Jernberg,
+        Marc-André Lureau, Martin Wilck, Matthias Klumpp, Matt Turner,
+        Michael Gisbers, Michael Marley, Michael Trapp, Michal Fabik,
+        Michał Kopeć, Michal Koutný, Michal Sekletár, Michele Guerini Rocco,
+        Mike Gilbert, milovlad, moson-mo, Nick, nihilix-melix, Oğuz Ersen,
+        Ondrej Mosnacek, pali, Pavel Hrdina, Pavel Sapezhko, Perry Yuan,
+        Peter Hutterer, Pierre Dubouilh, Piotr Drąg, Pjotr Vertaalt,
+        Richard Laager, RussianNeuroMancer, Sam Lunt, Sebastiaan van Stijn,
+        Sergey Bugaev, shenyangyang4, simmon, Simonas Kazlauskas,
+        Slimane Selyan Amiri, Stefan Agner, Steve Ramage, Susant Sahani,
+        Sven Mueller, Tad Fisher, Takashi Iwai, Thomas Haller, Tom Shield,
+        Topi Miettinen, Torsten Hilbrich, tpgxyz, Tyler Hicks, ulf-f,
+        Ulrich Ölmann, Vincent Pelletier, Vinnie Magro, Vito Caputo, Vlad,
+        walbit-de, Whired Planck, wouter bolsterlee, Xℹ Ruoyao, Yangyang Shen,
+        Yuri Chornoivan, Yu Watanabe, Zach Smith, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek,
+        Zmicer Turok, Дамјан Георгиевски
+        — Berlin, 2021-03-30
+        * KERNEL API INCOMPATIBILITY: Linux 4.14 introduced two new uevents
+          "bind" and "unbind" to the Linux device model. When this kernel
+          change was made, systemd-udevd was only minimally updated to handle
+          and propagate these new event types. The introduction of these new
+          uevents (which are typically generated for USB devices and devices
+          needing a firmware upload before being functional) resulted in a
+          number of issues which we so far didn't address. We hoped the kernel
+          maintainers would themselves address these issues in some form, but
+          that did not happen. To handle them properly, many (if not most) udev
+          rules files shipped in various packages need updating, and so do many
+          programs that monitor or enumerate devices with libudev or sd-device,
+          or otherwise process uevents. Please note that this incompatibility
+          is not fault of systemd or udev, but caused by an incompatible kernel
+          change that happened back in Linux 4.14, but is becoming more and
+          more visible as the new uevents are generated by more kernel drivers.
+          To minimize issues resulting from this kernel change (but not avoid
+          them entirely) starting with systemd-udevd 247 the udev "tags"
+          concept (which is a concept for marking and filtering devices during
+          enumeration and monitoring) has been reworked: udev tags are now
+          "sticky", meaning that once a tag is assigned to a device it will not
+          be removed from the device again until the device itself is removed
+          (i.e. unplugged). This makes sure that any application monitoring
+          devices that match a specific tag is guaranteed to both see uevents
+          where the device starts being relevant, and those where it stops
+          being relevant (the latter now regularly happening due to the new
+          "unbind" uevent type). The udev tags concept is hence now a concept
+          tied to a *device* instead of a device *event* — unlike for example
+          udev properties whose lifecycle (as before) is generally tied to a
+          device event, meaning that the previously determined properties are
+          forgotten whenever a new uevent is processed.
+          With the newly redefined udev tags concept, sometimes it's necessary
+          to determine which tags are the ones applied by the most recent
+          uevent/database update, in order to discern them from those
+          originating from earlier uevents/database updates of the same
+          device. To accommodate for this a new automatic property CURRENT_TAGS
+          has been added that works similar to the existing TAGS property but
+          only lists tags set by the most recent uevent/database
+          update. Similarly, the libudev/sd-device API has been updated with
+          new functions to enumerate these 'current' tags, in addition to the
+          existing APIs that now enumerate the 'sticky' ones.
+          To properly handle "bind"/"unbind" on Linux 4.14 and newer it is
+          essential that all udev rules files and applications are updated to
+          handle the new events. Specifically:
+          • All rule files that currently use a header guard similar to
+            ACTION!="add|change",GOTO="xyz_end" should be updated to use
+            ACTION=="remove",GOTO="xyz_end" instead, so that the
+            properties/tags they add are also applied whenever "bind" (or
+            "unbind") is seen. (This is most important for all physical device
+            types — those for which "bind" and "unbind" are currently
+            generated, for all other device types this change is still
+            recommended but not as important — but certainly prepares for
+            future kernel uevent type additions).
+          • Similarly, all code monitoring devices that contains an 'if' branch
+            discerning the "add" + "change" uevent actions from all other
+            uevents actions (i.e. considering devices only relevant after "add"
+            or "change", and irrelevant on all other events) should be reworked
+            to instead negatively check for "remove" only (i.e. considering
+            devices relevant after all event types, except for "remove", which
+            invalidates the device). Note that this also means that devices
+            should be considered relevant on "unbind", even though conceptually
+            this — in some form — invalidates the device. Since the precise
+            effect of "unbind" is not generically defined, devices should be
+            considered relevant even after "unbind", however I/O errors
+            accessing the device should then be handled gracefully.
+          • Any code that uses device tags for deciding whether a device is
+            relevant or not most likely needs to be updated to use the new
+            udev_device_has_current_tag() API (or sd_device_has_current_tag()
+            in case sd-device is used), to check whether the tag is set at the
+            moment an uevent is seen (as opposed to the existing
+            udev_device_has_tag() API which checks if the tag ever existed on
+            the device, following the API concept redefinition explained
+            above).
+          We are very sorry for this breakage and the requirement to update
+          packages using these interfaces. We'd again like to underline that
+          this is not caused by systemd/udev changes, but result of a kernel
+          behaviour change.
+        * UPCOMING INCOMPATIBILITY: So far most downstream distribution
+          packages have not retriggered devices once the udev package (or any
+          auxiliary package installing additional udev rules) is updated. We
+          intend to work with major distributions to change this, so that
+          "udevadm trigger -a change" is issued on such upgrades, ensuring that
+          the updated ruleset is applied to the devices already discovered, so
+          that (asynchronously) after the upgrade completed the udev database
+          is consistent with the updated rule set. This means udev rules must
+          be ready to be retriggered with a "change" action any time, and
+          result in correct and complete udev database entries. While the
+          majority of udev rule files known to us currently get this right,
+          some don't. Specifically, there are udev rules files included in
+          various packages that only set udev properties on the "add" action,
+          but do not handle the "change" action. If a device matching those
+          rules is retriggered with the "change" action (as is intended here)
+          it would suddenly lose the relevant properties. This always has been
+          problematic, but as soon as all udev devices are triggered on relevant
+          package upgrades this will become particularly so. It is strongly
+          recommended to fix offending rules so that they can handle a "change"
+          action at any time, and acquire all necessary udev properties even
+          then. Or in other words: the header guard mentioned above
+          (ACTION=="remove",GOTO="xyz_end") is the correct approach to handle
+          this, as it makes sure rules are rerun on "change" correctly, and
+          accumulate the correct and complete set of udev properties. udev rule
+          definitions that cannot handle "change" events being triggered at
+          arbitrary times should be considered buggy.
+        * The MountAPIVFS= service file setting now defaults to on if
+          RootImage= and RootDirectory= are used, which means that with those
+          two settings /proc/, /sys/ and /dev/ are automatically properly set
+          up for services. Previous behaviour may be restored by explicitly
+          setting MountAPIVFS=off.
+        * Since PAM 1.2.0 (2015) configuration snippets may be placed in
+          /usr/lib/pam.d/ in addition to /etc/pam.d/. If a file exists in the
+          latter it takes precedence over the former, similar to how most of
+          systemd's own configuration is handled. Given that PAM stack
+          definitions are primarily put together by OS vendors/distributions
+          (though possibly overridden by users), this systemd release moves its
+          own PAM stack configuration for the "systemd-user" PAM service (i.e.
+          for the PAM session invoked by the per-user user@.service instance)
+          from /etc/pam.d/ to /usr/lib/pam.d/. We recommend moving all
+          packages' vendor versions of their PAM stack definitions from
+          /etc/pam.d/ to /usr/lib/pam.d/, but if such OS-wide migration is not
+          desired the location to which systemd installs its PAM stack
+          configuration may be changed via the -Dpamconfdir Meson option.
+        * The runtime dependencies on libqrencode, libpcre2, libidn/libidn2,
+          libpwquality and libcryptsetup have been changed to be based on
+          dlopen(): instead of regular dynamic library dependencies declared in
+          the binary ELF headers, these libraries are now loaded on demand
+          only, if they are available. If the libraries cannot be found the
+          relevant operations will fail gracefully, or a suitable fallback
+          logic is chosen. This is supposed to be useful for general purpose
+          distributions, as it allows minimizing the list of dependencies the
+          systemd packages pull in, permitting building of more minimal OS
+          images, while still making use of these "weak" dependencies should
+          they be installed. Since many package managers automatically
+          synthesize package dependencies from ELF shared library dependencies,
+          some additional manual packaging work has to be done now to replace
+          those (slightly downgraded from "required" to "recommended" or
+          whatever is conceptually suitable for the package manager). Note that
+          this change does not alter build-time behaviour: as before the
+          build-time dependencies have to be installed during build, even if
+          they now are optional during runtime.
+        * sd-event.h gained a new call sd_event_add_time_relative() for
+          installing timers relative to the current time. This is mostly a
+          convenience wrapper around the pre-existing sd_event_add_time() call
+          which installs absolute timers.
+        * sd-event event sources may now be placed in a new "exit-on-failure"
+          mode, which may be controlled via the new
+          sd_event_source_get_exit_on_failure() and
+          sd_event_source_set_exit_on_failure() functions. If enabled, any
+          failure returned by the event source handler functions will result in
+          exiting the event loop (unlike the default behaviour of just
+          disabling the event source but continuing with the event loop). This
+          feature is useful to set for all event sources that define "primary"
+          program behaviour (where failure should be fatal) in contrast to
+          "auxiliary" behaviour (where failure should remain local).
+        * Most event source types sd-event supports now accept a NULL handler
+          function, in which case the event loop is exited once the event
+          source is to be dispatched, using the userdata pointer — converted to
+          a signed integer — as exit code of the event loop. Previously this
+          was supported for IO and signal event sources already. Exit event
+          sources still do not support this (simply because it makes little
+          sense there, as the event loop is already exiting when they are
+          dispatched).
+        * A new per-unit setting RootImageOptions= has been added which allows
+          tweaking the mount options for any file system mounted as effect of
+          the RootImage= setting.
+        * Another new per-unit setting MountImages= has been added, that allows
+          mounting additional disk images into the file system tree accessible
+          to the service.
+        * Timer units gained a new FixedRandomDelay= boolean setting. If
+          enabled, the random delay configured with RandomizedDelaySec= is
+          selected in a way that is stable on a given system (though still
+          different for different units).
+        * Socket units gained a new setting Timestamping= that takes "us", "ns"
+          or "off". This controls the SO_TIMESTAMP/SO_TIMESTAMPNS socket
+          options.
+        * systemd-repart now generates JSON output when requested with the new
+          --json= switch.
+        * systemd-machined's OpenMachineShell() bus call will now pass
+          additional policy metadata data fields to the PolicyKit
+          authentication request.
+        * systemd-tmpfiles gained a new -E switch, which is equivalent to
+          --exclude-prefix=/dev --exclude-prefix=/proc --exclude=/run
+          --exclude=/sys. It's particularly useful in combination with --root=,
+          when operating on OS trees that do not have any of these four runtime
+          directories mounted, as this means no files below these subtrees are
+          created or modified, since those mount points should probably remain
+          empty.
+        * systemd-tmpfiles gained a new --image= switch which is like --root=,
+          but takes a disk image instead of a directory as argument. The
+          specified disk image is mounted inside a temporary mount namespace
+          and the tmpfiles.d/ drop-ins stored in the image are executed and
+          applied to the image. systemd-sysusers similarly gained a new
+          --image= switch, that allows the sysusers.d/ drop-ins stored in the
+          image to be applied onto the image.
+        * Similarly, the journalctl command also gained an --image= switch,
+          which is a quick one-step solution to look at the log data included
+          in OS disk images.
+        * journalctl's --output=cat option (which outputs the log content
+          without any metadata, just the pure text messages) will now make use
+          of terminal colors when run on a suitable terminal, similarly to the
+          other output modes.
+        * JSON group records now support a "description" string that may be
+          used to add a human-readable textual description to such groups. This
+          is supposed to match the user's GECOS field which traditionally
+          didn't have a counterpart for group records.
+        * The "systemd-dissect" tool that may be used to inspect OS disk images
+          and that was previously installed to /usr/lib/systemd/ has now been
+          moved to /usr/bin/, reflecting its updated status of an officially
+          supported tool with a stable interface. It gained support for a new
+          --mkdir switch which when combined with --mount has the effect of
+          creating the directory to mount the image to if it is missing
+          first. It also gained two new commands --copy-from and --copy-to for
+          copying files and directories in and out of an OS image without the
+          need to manually mount it. It also acquired support for a new option
+          --json= to generate JSON output when inspecting an OS image.
+        * The cgroup2 file system is now mounted with the
+          "memory_recursiveprot" mount option, supported since kernel 5.7. This
+          means that the MemoryLow= and MemoryMin= unit file settings now apply
+          recursively to whole subtrees.
+        * systemd-homed now defaults to using the btrfs file system — if
+          available — when creating home directories in LUKS volumes. This may
+          be changed with the DefaultFileSystemType= setting in homed.conf.
+          It's now the default file system in various major distributions and
+          has the major benefit for homed that it can be grown and shrunk while
+          mounted, unlike the other contenders ext4 and xfs, which can both be
+          grown online, but not shrunk (in fact xfs is the technically most
+          limited option here, as it cannot be shrunk at all).
+        * JSON user records managed by systemd-homed gained support for
+          "recovery keys". These are basically secondary passphrases that can
+          unlock user accounts/home directories. They are computer-generated
+          rather than user-chosen, and typically have greater entropy.
+          homectl's --recovery-key= option may be used to add a recovery key to
+          a user account. The generated recovery key is displayed as a QR code,
+          so that it can be scanned to be kept in a safe place. This feature is
+          particularly useful in combination with systemd-homed's support for
+          FIDO2 or PKCS#11 authentication, as a secure fallback in case the
+          security tokens are lost. Recovery keys may be entered wherever the
+          system asks for a password.
+        * systemd-homed now maintains a "dirty" flag for each LUKS encrypted
+          home directory which indicates that a home directory has not been
+          deactivated cleanly when offline. This flag is useful to identify
+          home directories for which the offline discard logic did not run when
+          offlining, and where it would be a good idea to log in again to catch
+          up.
+        * systemctl gained a new parameter --timestamp= which may be used to
+          change the style in which timestamps are output, i.e. whether to show
+          them in local timezone or UTC, or whether to show µs granularity.
+        * Alibaba's "pouch" container manager is now detected by
+          systemd-detect-virt, ConditionVirtualization= and similar
+          constructs. Similar, they now also recognize IBM PowerVM machine
+          virtualization.
+        * systemd-nspawn has been reworked to use the /run/host/incoming/ as
+          place to use for propagating external mounts into the
+          container. Similarly /run/host/notify is now used as the socket path
+          for container payloads to communicate with the container manager
+          using sd_notify(). The container manager now uses the
+          /run/host/inaccessible/ directory to place "inaccessible" file nodes
+          of all relevant types which may be used by the container payload as
+          bind mount source to over-mount inodes to make them inaccessible.
+          /run/host/container-manager will now be initialized with the same
+          string as the $container environment variable passed to the
+          container's PID 1. /run/host/container-uuid will be initialized with
+          the same string as $container_uuid. This means the /run/host/
+          hierarchy is now the primary way to make host resources available to
+          the container. The Container Interface documents these new files and
+          directories:
+        * Support for the "ConditionNull=" unit file condition has been
+          deprecated and undocumented for 6 years. systemd started to warn
+          about its use 1.5 years ago. It has now been removed entirely.
+        * sd-bus.h gained a new API call sd_bus_error_has_names(), which takes
+          a sd_bus_error struct and a list of error names, and checks if the
+          error matches one of these names. It's a convenience wrapper that is
+          useful in cases where multiple errors shall be handled the same way.
+        * A new system call filter list "@known" has been added, that contains
+          all system calls known at the time systemd was built.
+        * Behaviour of system call filter allow lists has changed slightly:
+          system calls that are contained in @known will result in EPERM by
+          default, while those not contained in it result in ENOSYS. This
+          should improve compatibility because known system calls will thus be
+          communicated as prohibited, while unknown (and thus newer ones) will
+          be communicated as not implemented, which hopefully has the greatest
+          chance of triggering the right fallback code paths in client
+          applications.
+        * "systemd-analyze syscall-filter" will now show two separate sections
+          at the bottom of the output: system calls known during systemd build
+          time but not included in any of the filter groups shown above, and
+          system calls defined on the local kernel but known during systemd
+          build time.
+        * If the $SYSTEMD_LOG_SECCOMP=1 environment variable is set for
+          systemd-nspawn all system call filter violations will be logged by
+          the kernel (audit). This is useful for tracking down system calls
+          invoked by container payloads that are prohibited by the container's
+          system call filter policy.
+        * If the $SYSTEMD_SECCOMP=0 environment variable is set for
+          systemd-nspawn (and other programs that use seccomp) all seccomp
+          filtering is turned off.
+        * Two new unit file settings ProtectProc= and ProcSubset= have been
+          added that expose the hidepid= and subset= mount options of procfs.
+          All processes of the unit will only see processes in /proc that are
+          are owned by the unit's user. This is an important new sandboxing
+          option that is recommended to be set on all system services. All
+          long-running system services that are included in systemd itself set
+          this option now. This option is only supported on kernel 5.8 and
+          above, since the hidepid= option supported on older kernels was not a
+          per-mount option but actually applied to the whole PID namespace.
+        * Socket units gained a new boolean setting FlushPending=. If enabled
+          all pending socket data/connections are flushed whenever the socket
+          unit enters the "listening" state, i.e. after the associated service
+          exited.
+        * The unit file setting NUMAMask= gained a new "all" value: when used,
+          all existing NUMA nodes are added to the NUMA mask.
+        * A new "credentials" logic has been added to system services. This is
+          a simple mechanism to pass privileged data to services in a safe and
+          secure way. It's supposed to be used to pass per-service secret data
+          such as passwords or cryptographic keys but also associated less
+          private information such as user names, certificates, and similar to
+          system services. Each credential is identified by a short user-chosen
+          name and may contain arbitrary binary data. Two new unit file
+          settings have been added: SetCredential= and LoadCredential=. The
+          former allows setting a credential to a literal string, the latter
+          sets a credential to the contents of a file (or data read from a
+          user-chosen AF_UNIX stream socket). Credentials are passed to the
+          service via a special credentials directory, one file for each
+          credential. The path to the credentials directory is passed in a new
+          $CREDENTIALS_DIRECTORY environment variable. Since the credentials
+          are passed in the file system they may be easily referenced in
+          ExecStart= command lines too, thus no explicit support for the
+          credentials logic in daemons is required (though ideally daemons
+          would look for the bits they need in $CREDENTIALS_DIRECTORY
+          themselves automatically, if set). The $CREDENTIALS_DIRECTORY is
+          backed by unswappable memory if privileges allow it, immutable if
+          privileges allow it, is accessible only to the service's UID, and is
+          automatically destroyed when the service stops.
+        * systemd-nspawn supports the same credentials logic. It can both
+          consume credentials passed to it via the aforementioned
+          $CREDENTIALS_DIRECTORY protocol as well as pass these credentials on
+          to its payload. The service manager/PID 1 has been updated to match
+          this: it can also accept credentials from the container manager that
+          invokes it (in fact: any process that invokes it), and passes them on
+          to its services. Thus, credentials can be propagated recursively down
+          the tree: from a system's service manager to a systemd-nspawn
+          service, to the service manager that runs as container payload and to
+          the service it runs below. Credentials may also be added on the
+          systemd-nspawn command line, using new --set-credential= and
+          --load-credential= command line switches that match the
+          aforementioned service settings.
+        * systemd-repart gained new settings Format=, Encrypt=, CopyFiles= in
+          the partition drop-ins which may be used to format/LUKS
+          encrypt/populate any created partitions. The partitions are
+          encrypted/formatted/populated before they are registered in the
+          partition table, so that they appear atomically: either the
+          partitions do not exist yet or they exist fully encrypted, formatted,
+          and populated — there is no time window where they are
+          "half-initialized". Thus the system is robust to abrupt shutdown: if
+          the tool is terminated half-way during its operations on next boot it
+          will start from the beginning.
+        * systemd-repart's --size= operation gained a new "auto" value. If
+          specified, and operating on a loopback file it is automatically sized
+          to the minimal size the size constraints permit. This is useful to
+          use "systemd-repart" as an image builder for minimally sized images.
+        * systemd-resolved now gained a third IPC interface for requesting name
+          resolution: besides D-Bus and local DNS to a Varlink
+          interface is now supported. The nss-resolve NSS module has been
+          modified to use this new interface instead of D-Bus. Using Varlink
+          has a major benefit over D-Bus: it works without a broker service,
+          and thus already during earliest boot, before the dbus daemon has
+          been started. This means name resolution via systemd-resolved now
+          works at the same time systemd-networkd operates: from earliest boot
+          on, including in the initrd.
+        * systemd-resolved gained support for a new DNSStubListenerExtra=
+          configuration file setting which may be used to specify additional IP
+          addresses the built-in DNS stub shall listen on, in addition to the
+          main one on
+        * Name lookups issued via systemd-resolved's D-Bus and Varlink
+          interfaces (and thus also via glibc NSS if nss-resolve is used) will
+          now honour a trailing dot in the hostname: if specified the search
+          path logic is turned off. Thus "resolvectl query foo." is now
+          equivalent to "resolvectl query --search=off foo.".
+        * systemd-resolved gained a new D-Bus property "ResolvConfMode" that
+          exposes how /etc/resolv.conf is currently managed: by resolved (and
+          in which mode if so) or another subsystem. "resolvctl" will display
+          this property in its status output.
+        * The resolv.conf snippets systemd-resolved provides will now set "."
+          as the search domain if no other search domain is known. This turns
+          off the derivation of an implicit search domain by nss-dns for the
+          hostname, when the hostname is set to an FQDN. This change is done to
+          make nss-dns using resolv.conf provided by systemd-resolved behave
+          more similarly to nss-resolve.
+        * systemd-tmpfiles' file "aging" logic (i.e. the automatic clean-up of
+          /tmp/ and /var/tmp/ based on file timestamps) now looks at the
+          "birth" time (btime) of a file in addition to the atime, mtime, and
+          ctime.
+        * systemd-analyze gained a new verb "capability" that lists all known
+          capabilities by the systemd build and by the kernel.
+        * If a file /usr/lib/clock-epoch exists, PID 1 will read its mtime and
+          advance the system clock to it at boot if it is noticed to be before
+          that time. Previously, PID 1 would only advance the time to an epoch
+          time that is set during build-time. With this new file OS builders
+          can change this epoch timestamp on individual OS images without
+          having to rebuild systemd.
+        * systemd-logind will now listen to the KEY_RESTART key from the Linux
+          input layer and reboot the system if it is pressed, similarly to how
+          it already handles KEY_POWER, KEY_SUSPEND or KEY_SLEEP. KEY_RESTART
+          was originally defined in the Multimedia context (to restart playback
+          of a song or film), but is now primarily used in various embedded
+          devices for "Reboot" buttons. Accordingly, systemd-logind will now
+          honour it as such. This may configured in more detail via the new
+          HandleRebootKey= and RebootKeyIgnoreInhibited=.
+        * systemd-nspawn/systemd-machined will now reconstruct hardlinks when
+          copying OS trees, for example in "systemd-nspawn --ephemeral",
+          "systemd-nspawn --template=", "machinectl clone" and similar. This is
+          useful when operating with OSTree images, which use hardlinks heavily
+          throughout, and where such copies previously resulting in "exploding"
+          hardlinks.
+        * systemd-nspawn's --console= setting gained support for a new
+          "autopipe" value, which is identical to "interactive" when invoked on
+          a TTY, and "pipe" otherwise.
+        * systemd-networkd's .network files gained support for explicitly
+          configuring the multicast membership entries of bridge devices in the
+          [BridgeMDB] section. It also gained support for the PIE queuing
+          discipline in the [FlowQueuePIE] sections.
+        * systemd-networkd's .netdev files may now be used to create "BareUDP"
+          tunnels, configured in the new [BareUDP] setting.
+        * systemd-networkd's Gateway= setting in .network files now accepts the
+          special values "_dhcp4" and "_ipv6ra" to configure additional,
+          locally defined, explicit routes to the gateway acquired via DHCP or
+          IPv6 Router Advertisements. The old setting "_dhcp" is deprecated,
+          but still accepted for backwards compatibility.
+        * systemd-networkd's [IPv6PrefixDelegation] section and
+          IPv6PrefixDelegation= options have been renamed as [IPv6SendRA] and
+          IPv6SendRA= (the old names are still accepted for backwards
+          compatibility).
+        * systemd-networkd's .network files gained the DHCPv6PrefixDelegation=
+          boolean setting in [Network] section. If enabled, the delegated prefix
+          gained by another link will be configured, and an address within the
+          prefix will be assigned.
+        * systemd-networkd's .network files gained the Announce= boolean setting
+          in [DHCPv6PrefixDelegation] section. When enabled, the delegated
+          prefix will be announced through IPv6 router advertisement (IPv6 RA).
+          The setting is enabled by default.
+        * VXLAN tunnels may now be marked as independent of any underlying
+          network interface via the new Independent= boolean setting.
+        * systemctl gained support for two new verbs: "service-log-level" and
+          "service-log-target" may be used on services that implement the
+          generic org.freedesktop.LogControl1 D-Bus interface to dynamically
+          adjust the log level and target. All of systemd's long-running
+          services support this now, but ideally all system services would
+          implement this interface to make the system more uniformly
+          debuggable.
+        * The SystemCallErrorNumber= unit file setting now accepts the new
+          "kill" and "log" actions, in addition to arbitrary error number
+          specifications as before. If "kill" the processes are killed on the
+          event, if "log" the offending system call is audit logged.
+        * A new SystemCallLog= unit file setting has been added that accepts a
+          list of system calls that shall be logged about (audit).
+        * The OS image dissection logic (as used by RootImage= in unit files or
+          systemd-nspawn's --image= switch) has gained support for identifying
+          and mounting explicit /usr/ partitions, which are now defined in the
+          discoverable partition specification. This should be useful for
+          environments where the root file system is
+          generated/formatted/populated dynamically on first boot and combined
+          with an immutable /usr/ tree that is supplied by the vendor.
+        * In the final phase of shutdown, within the systemd-shutdown binary
+          we'll now try to detach MD devices (i.e software RAID) in addition to
+          loopback block devices and DM devices as before. This is supposed to
+          be a safety net only, in order to increase robustness if things go
+          wrong. Storage subsystems are expected to properly detach their
+          storage volumes during regular shutdown already (or in case of
+          storage backing the root file system: in the initrd hook we return to
+          later).
+        * If the SYSTEMD_LOG_TID environment variable is set all systemd tools
+          will now log the thread ID in their log output. This is useful when
+          working with heavily threaded programs.
+        * If the SYSTEMD_RDRAND environment variable is set to "0", systemd will
+          not use the RDRAND CPU instruction. This is useful in environments
+          such as replay debuggers where non-deterministic behaviour is not
+          desirable.
+        * The autopaging logic in systemd's various tools (such as systemctl)
+          has been updated to turn on "secure" mode in "less"
+          (i.e. $LESSECURE=1) if execution in a "sudo" environment is
+          detected. This disables invoking external programs from the pager,
+          via the pipe logic. This behaviour may be overridden via the new
+          $SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE environment variable.
+        * Units which have resource limits (.service, .mount, .swap, .slice,
+          .socket, and .slice) gained new configuration settings
+          ManagedOOMSwap=, ManagedOOMMemoryPressure=, and
+          ManagedOOMMemoryPressureLimitPercent= that specify resource pressure
+          limits and optional action taken by systemd-oomd.
+        * A new service systemd-oomd has been added. It monitors resource
+          contention for selected parts of the unit hierarchy using the PSI
+          information reported by the kernel, and kills processes when memory
+          or swap pressure is above configured limits. This service is only
+          enabled by default in developer mode (see below) and should be
+          considered a preview in this release. Behaviour details and option
+          names are subject to change without the usual backwards-compatibility
+          promises.
+        * A new helper oomctl has been added to introspect systemd-oomd state.
+          It is only enabled by default in developer mode and should be
+          considered a preview without the usual backwards-compatibility
+          promises.
+        * New meson option -Dcompat-mutable-uid-boundaries= has been added. If
+          enabled, systemd reads the system UID boundaries from /etc/login.defs
+          at runtime, instead of using the built-in values selected during
+          build. This is an option to improve compatibility for upgrades from
+          old systems. It's strongly recommended not to make use of this
+          functionality on new systems (or even enable it during build), as it
+          makes something runtime-configurable that is mostly an implementation
+          detail of the OS, and permits avoidable differences in deployments
+          that create all kinds of problems in the long run.
+        * New meson option '-Dmode=developer|release' has been added. When
+          'developer', additional checks and features are enabled that are
+          relevant during upstream development, e.g. verification that
+          semi-automatically-generated documentation has been properly updated
+          following API changes. Those checks are considered hints for
+          developers and are not actionable in downstream builds. In addition,
+          extra features that are not ready for general consumption may be
+          enabled in developer mode. It is thus recommended to set
+          '-Dmode=release' in end-user and distro builds.
+        * systemd-cryptsetup gained support for processing detached LUKS
+          headers specified on the kernel command line via the header=
+          parameter of the luks.options= kernel command line option. The same
+          device/path syntax as for key files is supported for header files
+          like this.
+        * The "net_id" built-in of udev has been updated to ignore ACPI _SUN
+          slot index data for devices that are connected through a PCI bridge
+          where the _SUN index is associated with the bridge instead of the
+          network device itself. Previously this would create ambiguous device
+          naming if multiple network interfaces were connected to the same PCI
+          bridge. Since this is a naming scheme incompatibility on systems that
+          possess hardware like this it has been introduced as new naming
+          scheme "v247". The previous scheme can be selected via the
+          "net.naming-scheme=v245" kernel command line parameter.
+        * ConditionFirstBoot= semantics have been modified to be safe towards
+          abnormal system power-off during first boot. Specifically, the
+          "systemd-machine-id-commit.service" service now acts as boot
+          milestone indicating when the first boot process is sufficiently
+          complete in order to not consider the next following boot also a
+          first boot. If the system is reset before this unit is reached the
+          first time, the next boot will still be considered a first boot; once
+          it has been reached, no further boots will be considered a first
+          boot. The "" unit now acts as official hook
+          point to order against this. If a service shall be run on every boot
+          until the first boot fully succeeds it may thus be ordered before
+          this target unit (and pull it in) and carry ConditionFirstBoot=
+          appropriately.
+        * bootctl's set-default and set-oneshot commands now accept the three
+          special strings "@default", "@oneshot", "@current" in place of a boot
+          entry id. These strings are resolved to the current default and
+          oneshot boot loader entry, as well as the currently booted one. Thus
+          a command "bootctl set-default @current" may be used to make the
+          currently boot menu item the new default for all subsequent boots.
+        * "systemctl edit" has been updated to show the original effective unit
+          contents in commented form in the text editor.
+        * Units in user mode are now segregated into three new slices:
+          session.slice (units that form the core of graphical session),
+          app.slice ("normal" user applications), and background.slice
+          (low-priority tasks). Unless otherwise configured, user units are
+          placed in app.slice. The plan is to add resource limits and
+          protections for the different slices in the future.
+        * New GPT partition types for RISCV32/64 for the root and /usr
+          partitions, and their associated Verity partitions have been defined,
+          and are now understood by systemd-gpt-auto-generator, and the OS
+          image dissection logic.
+        Contributions from: Adolfo Jayme Barrientos, afg, Alec Moskvin, Alyssa
+        Ross, Amitanand Chikorde, Andrew Hangsleben, Anita Zhang, Ansgar
+        Burchardt, Arian van Putten, Aurelien Jarno, Axel Rasmussen, bauen1,
+        Beniamino Galvani, Benjamin Berg, Bjørn Mork, brainrom, Chandradeep
+        Dey, Charles Lee, Chris Down, Christian Göttsche, Christof Efkemann,
+        Christoph Ruegge, Clemens Gruber, Daan De Meyer, Daniele Medri, Daniel
+        Mack, Daniel Rusek, Dan Streetman, David Tardon, Dimitri John Ledkov,
+        Dmitry Borodaenko, Elias Probst, Elisei Roca, ErrantSpore, Etienne
+        Doms, Fabrice Fontaine, fangxiuning, Felix Riemann, Florian Klink,
+        Franck Bui, Frantisek Sumsal, fwSmit, George Rawlinson, germanztz,
+        Gibeom Gwon, Glen Whitney, Gogo Gogsi, Göran Uddeborg, Grant Mathews,
+        Hans de Goede, Hans Ulrich Niedermann, Haochen Tong, Harald Seiler,
+        huangyong, Hubert Kario, igo95862, Ikey Doherty, Insun Pyo, Jan Chren,
+        Jan Schlüter, Jérémy Nouhaud, Jian-Hong Pan, Joerg Behrmann, Jonathan
+        Lebon, Jörg Thalheim, Josh Brobst, Juergen Hoetzel, Julien Humbert,
+        Kai-Chuan Hsieh, Kairui Song, Kamil Dudka, Kir Kolyshkin, Kristijan
+        Gjoshev, Kyle Huey, Kyle Russell, Lee Whalen, Lennart Poettering,
+        lichangze, Luca Boccassi, Lucas Werkmeister, Luca Weiss, Marc
+        Kleine-Budde, Marco Wang, Martin Wilck, Marti Raudsepp, masmullin2000,
+        Máté Pozsgay, Matt Fenwick, Michael Biebl, Michael Scherer, Michal
+        Koutný, Michal Sekletár, Michal Suchanek, Mikael Szreder, Milo
+        Casagrande, mirabilos, Mitsuha_QuQ, mog422, Muhammet Kara, Nazar
+        Vinnichuk, Nicholas Narsing, Nicolas Fella, Njibhu, nl6720, Oğuz Ersen,
+        Olivier Le Moal, Ondrej Kozina, onlybugreports, Pass Automated Testing
+        Suite, Pat Coulthard, Pavel Sapezhko, Pedro Ruiz, perry_yuan, Peter
+        Hutterer, Phaedrus Leeds, PhoenixDiscord, Piotr Drąg, Plan C,
+        Purushottam choudhary, Rasmus Villemoes, Renaud Métrich, Robert Marko,
+        Roman Beranek, Ronan Pigott, Roy Chen (陳彥廷), RussianNeuroMancer,
+        Samanta Navarro, Samuel BF, scootergrisen, Sorin Ionescu, Steve Dodd,
+        Susant Sahani, Timo Rothenpieler, Tobias Hunger, Tobias Kaufmann, Topi
+        Miettinen, vanou, Vito Caputo, Weblate, Wen Yang, Whired Planck,
+        williamvds, Yu, Li-Yu, Yuri Chornoivan, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew
+        Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Zmicer Turok, Дамјан Георгиевски
+        – Warsaw, 2020-11-26
+        * The service manager gained basic support for cgroup v2 freezer. Units
+          can now be suspended or resumed either using new systemctl verbs,
+          freeze and thaw respectively, or via D-Bus.
+        * PID 1 may now automatically load pre-compiled AppArmor policies from
+          /etc/apparmor/earlypolicy during early boot.
+        * The CPUAffinity= setting in service unit files now supports a new
+          special value "numa" that causes the CPU affinity masked to be set
+          based on the NUMA mask.
+        * systemd will now log about all left-over processes remaining in a
+          unit when the unit is stopped. It will now warn about services using
+          KillMode=none, as this is generally an unsafe thing to make use of.
+        * Two new unit file settings
+          ConditionPathIsEncrypted=/AssertPathIsEncrypted= have been
+          added. They may be used to check whether a specific file system path
+          resides on a block device that is encrypted on the block level
+          (i.e. using dm-crypt/LUKS).
+        * Another pair of new settings ConditionEnvironment=/AssertEnvironment=
+          has been added that may be used for simple environment checks. This
+          is particularly useful when passing in environment variables from a
+          container manager (or from PAM in case of the systemd --user
+          instance).
+        * .service unit files now accept a new setting CoredumpFilter= which
+          allows configuration of the memory sections coredumps of the
+          service's processes shall include.
+        * .mount units gained a new ReadWriteOnly= boolean option. If set
+          it will not be attempted to mount a file system read-only if mounting
+          in read-write mode doesn't succeed. An option is
+          available in /etc/fstab to control the same.
+        * .socket units gained a new boolean setting PassPacketInfo=. If
+          enabled, the kernel will attach additional per-packet metadata to all
+          packets read from the socket, as an ancillary message. This controls
+          the IP_PKTINFO, IPV6_RECVPKTINFO, NETLINK_PKTINFO socket options,
+          depending on socket type.
+        * .service units gained a new setting RootHash= which may be used to
+          specify the root hash for verity enabled disk images which are
+          specified in RootImage=. RootVerity= may be used to specify a path to
+          the Verity data matching a RootImage= file system. (The latter is
+          only useful for images that do not contain the Verity data embedded
+          into the same image that carries a GPT partition table following the
+          Discoverable Partition Specification). Similarly, systemd-nspawn
+          gained a new switch --verity-data= that takes a path to a file with
+          the verity data of the disk image supplied in --image=, if the image
+          doesn't contain the verity data itself.
+        * .service units gained a new setting RootHashSignature= which takes
+          either a base64 encoded PKCS#7 signature of the root hash specified
+          with RootHash=, or a path to a file to read the signature from. This
+          allows validation of the root hash against public keys available in
+          the kernel keyring, and is only supported on recent kernels
+          (>= 5.4)/libcryptsetup (>= 2.30). A similar switch has been added to
+          systemd-nspawn and systemd-dissect (--root-hash-sig=). Support for
+          this mechanism has also been added to systemd-veritysetup.
+        * .service unit files gained two new options
+          TimeoutStartFailureMode=/TimeoutStopFailureMode= that may be used to
+          tune behaviour if a start or stop timeout is hit, i.e. whether to
+          terminate the service with SIGTERM, SIGABRT or SIGKILL.
+        * Most options in systemd that accept hexadecimal values prefixed with
+          0x in additional to the usual decimal notation now also support octal
+          notation when the 0o prefix is used and binary notation if the 0b
+          prefix is used.
+        * Various command line parameters and configuration file settings that
+          configure key or certificate files now optionally take paths to
+          AF_UNIX sockets in the file system. If configured that way a stream
+          connection is made to the socket and the required data read from
+          it. This is a simple and natural extension to the existing regular
+          file logic, and permits other software to provide keys or
+          certificates via simple IPC services, for example when unencrypted
+          storage on disk is not desired. Specifically, systemd-networkd's
+          Wireguard and MACSEC key file settings as well as
+          systemd-journal-gatewayd's and systemd-journal-remote's PEM
+          key/certificate parameters support this now.
+        * Unit files, tmpfiles.d/ snippets, sysusers.d/ snippets and other
+          configuration files that support specifier expansion learnt six new
+          specifiers: %a resolves to the current architecture, %o/%w/%B/%W
+          resolve to the various ID fields from /etc/os-release, %l resolves to
+          the "short" hostname of the system, i.e. the hostname configured in
+          the kernel truncated at the first dot.
+        * Support for the .include syntax in unit files has been removed. The
+          concept has been obsolete for 6 years and we started warning about
+          its pending removal 2 years ago (also see NEWS file below). It's
+          finally gone now.
+        * StandardError= and StandardOutput= in unit files no longer support
+          the "syslog" and "syslog-console" switches. They were long removed
+          from the documentation, but will now result in warnings when used,
+          and be converted to "journal" and "journal+console" automatically.
+        * If the service setting User= is set to the "nobody" user, a warning
+          message is now written to the logs (but the value is nonetheless
+          accepted). Setting User=nobody is unsafe, since the primary purpose
+          of the "nobody" user is to own all files whose owner cannot be mapped
+          locally. It's in particular used by the NFS subsystem and in user
+          namespacing. By running a service under this user's UID it might get
+          read and even write access to all these otherwise unmappable files,
+          which is quite likely a major security problem.
+        * tmpfs mounts automatically created by systemd (/tmp, /run, /dev/shm,
+          and others) now have a size and inode limits applied (50% of RAM for
+          /tmp and /dev/shm, 10% of RAM for other mounts, etc.). Please note
+          that the implicit kernel default is 50% too, so there is no change
+          in the size limit for /tmp and /dev/shm.
+        * nss-mymachines lost support for resolution of users and groups, and
+          now only does resolution of hostnames. This functionality is now
+          provided by nss-systemd. Thus, the 'mymachines' entry should be
+          removed from the 'passwd:' and 'group:' lines in /etc/nsswitch.conf
+          (and 'systemd' added if it is not already there).
+        * A new kernel command line option systemd.hostname= has been added
+          that allows controlling the hostname that is initialized early during
+          boot.
+        * A kernel command line option "udev.blockdev_read_only" has been
+          added. If specified all hardware block devices that show up are
+          immediately marked as read-only by udev. This option is useful for
+          making sure that a specific boot under no circumstances modifies data
+          on disk. Use "blockdev --setrw" to undo the effect of this, per
+          device.
+        * A new boolean kernel command line option systemd.swap= has been
+          added, which may be used to turn off automatic activation of swap
+          devices listed in /etc/fstab.
+        * New kernel command line options systemd.condition-needs-update= and
+          systemd.condition-first-boot= have been added, which override the
+          result of the ConditionNeedsUpdate= and ConditionFirstBoot=
+          conditions.
+        * A new kernel command line option systemd.clock-usec= has been added
+          that allows setting the system clock to the specified time in µs
+          since Jan 1st, 1970 early during boot. This is in particular useful
+          in order to make test cases more reliable.
+        * The fs.suid_dumpable sysctl is set to 2 / "suidsafe". This allows
+          systemd-coredump to save core files for suid processes. When saving
+          the core file, systemd-coredump will use the effective uid and gid of
+          the process that faulted.
+        * The /sys/module/kernel/parameters/crash_kexec_post_notifiers file is
+          now automatically set to "Y" at boot, in order to enable pstore
+          generation for collection with systemd-pstore.
+        * We provide a set of udev rules to enable auto-suspend on PCI and USB
+          devices that were tested to correctly support it. Previously, this
+          was distributed as a set of udev rules, but has now been replaced by
+          by a set of hwdb entries (and a much shorter udev rule to take action
+          if the device modalias matches one of the new hwdb entries).
+          As before, entries are periodically imported from the database
+          maintained by the ChromiumOS project. If you have a device that
+          supports auto-suspend correctly and where it should be enabled by
+          default, please submit a patch that adds it to the database (see
+          /usr/lib/udev/hwdb.d/60-autosuspend.hwdb).
+        * systemd-udevd gained the new configuration option timeout_signal= as well
+          as a corresponding kernel command line option udev.timeout_signal=.
+          The option can be used to configure the UNIX signal that the main
+          daemon sends to the worker processes on timeout. Setting the signal
+          to SIGABRT is useful for debugging.
+        * .link files managed by systemd-udevd gained options RxFlowControl=,
+          TxFlowControl=, AutoNegotiationFlowControl= in the [Link] section, in
+          order to configure various flow control parameters. They also gained
+          RxMiniBufferSize= and RxJumboBufferSize= in order to configure jumbo
+          frame ring buffer sizes.
+        * networkd.conf gained a new boolean setting ManageForeignRoutes=. If
+          enabled systemd-networkd manages all routes configured by other tools.
+        * .network files managed by systemd-networkd gained a new section
+          [SR-IOV], in order to configure SR-IOV capable network devices.
+        * systemd-networkd's [IPv6Prefix] section in .network files gained a
+          new boolean setting Assign=. If enabled an address from the prefix is
+          automatically assigned to the interface.
+        * systemd-networkd gained a new section [DHCPv6PrefixDelegation] which
+          controls delegated prefixes assigned by DHCPv6 client. The section
+          has three settings: SubnetID=, Assign=, and Token=. The setting
+          SubnetID= allows explicit configuration of the preferred subnet that
+          systemd-networkd's Prefix Delegation logic assigns to interfaces. If
+          Assign= is enabled (which is the default) an address from any acquired
+          delegated prefix is automatically chosen and assigned to the
+          interface. The setting Token= specifies an optional address generation
+          mode for Assign=.
+        * systemd-networkd's [Network] section gained a new setting
+          IPv4AcceptLocal=. If enabled the interface accepts packets with local
+          source addresses.
+        * systemd-networkd gained support for configuring the HTB queuing
+          discipline in the [HierarchyTokenBucket] and
+          [HierarchyTokenBucketClass] sections. Similar the "pfifo" qdisc may
+          be configured in the [PFIFO] section, "GRED" in
+          [GenericRandomEarlyDetection], "SFB" in [StochasticFairBlue], "cake"
+          in [CAKE], "PIE" in [PIE], "DRR" in [DeficitRoundRobinScheduler] and
+          [DeficitRoundRobinSchedulerClass], "BFIFO" in [BFIFO],
+          "PFIFOHeadDrop" in [PFIFOHeadDrop], "PFIFOFast" in [PFIFOFast], "HHF"
+          in [HeavyHitterFilter], "ETS" in [EnhancedTransmissionSelection] and
+          "QFQ" in [QuickFairQueueing] and [QuickFairQueueingClass].
+        * systemd-networkd gained support for a new Termination= setting in the
+          [CAN] section for configuring the termination resistor. It also
+          gained a new ListenOnly= setting for controlling whether to only
+          listen on CAN interfaces, without interfering with traffic otherwise
+          (which is useful for debugging/monitoring CAN network
+          traffic). DataBitRate=, DataSamplePoint=, FDMode=, FDNonISO= have
+          been added to configure various CAN-FD aspects.
+        * systemd-networkd's [DHCPv6] section gained a new option WithoutRA=.
+          When enabled, DHCPv6 will be attempted right-away without requiring an
+          Router Advertisement packet suggesting it first (i.e. without the 'M'
+          or 'O' flags set). The [IPv6AcceptRA] section gained a boolean option
+          DHCPv6Client= that may be used to turn off the DHCPv6 client even if
+          the RA packets suggest it.
+        * systemd-networkd's [DHCPv4] section gained a new setting UseGateway=
+          which may be used to turn off use of the gateway information provided
+          by the DHCP lease. A new FallbackLeaseLifetimeSec= setting may be
+          used to configure how to process leases that lack a lifetime option.
+        * systemd-networkd's [DHCPv4] and [DHCPServer] sections gained a new
+          setting SendVendorOption= allowing configuration of additional vendor
+          options to send in the DHCP requests/responses. The [DHCPv6] section
+          gained a new SendOption= setting for sending arbitrary DHCP
+          options. RequestOptions= has been added to request arbitrary options
+          from the server. UserClass= has been added to set the DHCP user class
+          field.
+        * systemd-networkd's [DHCPServer] section gained a new set of options
+          EmitPOP3=/POP3=, EmitSMTP=/SMTP=, EmitLPR=/LPR= for including server
+          information about these three protocols in the DHCP lease. It also
+          gained support for including "MUD" URLs ("Manufacturer Usage
+          Description"). Support for "MUD" URLs was also added to the LLDP
+          stack, configurable in the [LLDP] section in .network files.
+        * The Mode= settings in [MACVLAN] and [MACVTAP] now support 'source'
+          mode. Also, the sections now support a new setting SourceMACAddress=.
+        * systemd-networkd's .netdev files now support a new setting
+          VLANProtocol= in the [Bridge] section that allows configuration of
+          the VLAN protocol to use.
+        * systemd-networkd supports a new Group= setting in the [Link] section
+          of the .network files, to control the link group.
+        * systemd-networkd's [Network] section gained a new
+          IPv6LinkLocalAddressGenerationMode= setting, which specifies how IPv6
+          link local address is generated.
+        * A new default .network file is now shipped that matches TUN/TAP
+          devices that begin with "vt-" in their name. Such interfaces will
+          have IP routing onto the host links set up automatically. This is
+          supposed to be used by VM managers to trivially acquire a network
+          interface which is fully set up for host communication, simply by
+          carefully picking an interface name to use.
+        * systemd-networkd's [DHCPv6] section gained a new setting RouteMetric=
+          which sets the route priority for routes specified by the DHCP server.
+        * systemd-networkd's [DHCPv6] section gained a new setting VendorClass=
+          which configures the vendor class information sent to DHCP server.
+        * The BlackList= settings in .network files' [DHCPv4] and
+          [IPv6AcceptRA] sections have been renamed DenyList=. The old names
+          are still understood to provide compatibility.
+        * networkctl gained the new "forcerenew" command for forcing all DHCP
+          server clients to renew their lease. The interface "status" output
+          will now show numerous additional fields of information about an
+          interface. There are new "up" and "down" commands to bring specific
+          interfaces up or down.
+        * systemd-resolved's DNS= configuration option now optionally accepts a
+          port number (after ":") and a host name (after "#"). When the host
+          name is specified, the DNS-over-TLS certificate is validated to match
+          the specified hostname. Additionally, in case of IPv6 addresses, an
+          interface may be specified (after "%").
+        * systemd-resolved may be configured to forward single-label DNS names.
+          This is not standard-conformant, but may make sense in setups where
+          public DNS servers are not used.
+        * systemd-resolved's DNS-over-TLS support gained SNI validation.
+        * systemd-nspawn's --resolv-conf= switch gained a number of new
+          supported values. Specifically, options starting with "replace-" are
+          like those prefixed "copy-" but replace any existing resolv.conf
+          file. And options ending in "-uplink" and "-stub" can now be used to
+          propagate other flavours of resolv.conf into the container (as
+          defined by systemd-resolved).
+        * The various programs included in systemd can now optionally output
+          their log messages on stderr prefixed with a timestamp, controlled by
+          the $SYSTEMD_LOG_TIME environment variable.
+        * systemctl gained a new "-P" switch that is a shortcut for "--value
+          --property=…".
+        * "systemctl list-units" and "systemctl list-machines" no longer hide
+          their first output column with --no-legend. To hide the first column,
+          use --plain.
+        * "systemctl reboot" takes the option "--reboot-argument=".
+          The optional positional argument to "systemctl reboot" is now
+          being deprecated in favor of this option.
+        * systemd-run gained a new switch --slice-inherit. If specified the
+          unit it generates is placed in the same slice as the systemd-run
+          process itself.
+        * systemd-journald gained support for zstd compression of large fields
+          in journal files. The hash tables in journal files have been hardened
+          against hash collisions. This is an incompatible change and means
+          that journal files created with new systemd versions are not readable
+          with old versions. If the $SYSTEMD_JOURNAL_KEYED_HASH boolean
+          environment variable for systemd-journald.service is set to 0 this
+          new hardening functionality may be turned off, so that generated
+          journal files remain compatible with older journalctl
+          implementations.
+        * journalctl will now include a clickable link in the default output for
+          each log message for which an URL with further documentation is
+          known. This is only supported on terminal emulators that support
+          clickable hyperlinks, and is turned off if a pager is used (since
+          "less" still doesn't support hyperlinks,
+          unfortunately). Documentation URLs may be included in log messages
+          either by including a DOCUMENTATION= journal field in it, or by
+          associating a journal message catalog entry with the log message's
+          MESSAGE_ID, which then carries a "Documentation:" tag.
+        * journald.conf gained a new boolean setting Audit= that may be used to
+          control whether systemd-journald will enable audit during
+          initialization.
+        * when systemd-journald's log stream is broken up into multiple lines
+          because the PID of the sender changed this is indicated in the
+          generated log records via the _LINE_BREAK=pid-change field.
+        * journalctl's "-o cat" output mode will now show one or more journal
+          fields specified with --output-fields= instead of unconditionally
+          MESSAGE=. This is useful to retrieve a very specific set of fields
+          without any decoration.
+        * The sd-journal.h API gained two new functions:
+          sd_journal_enumerate_available_unique() and
+          sd_journal_enumerate_available_data() that operate like their
+          counterparts that lack the _available_ in the name, but skip items
+          that cannot be read and processed by the local implementation
+          (i.e. are compressed in an unsupported format or such),
+        * coredumpctl gained a new --file= switch, matching the same one in
+          journalctl: a specific journal file may be specified to read the
+          coredump data from.
+        * coredumps collected by systemd-coredump may now be compressed using
+          the zstd algorithm.
+        * systemd-binfmt gained a new switch --unregister for unregistering all
+          registered entries at once. This is now invoked automatically at
+          shutdown, so that binary formats registered with the "F" flag will
+          not block clean file system unmounting.
+        * systemd-notify's --pid= switch gained new values: "parent", "self",
+          "auto" for controlling which PID to send to the service manager: the
+          systemd-notify process' PID, or the one of the process invoking it.
+        * systemd-logind's Session bus object learnt a new method call
+          SetType() for temporarily updating the session type of an already
+          allocated session. This is useful for upgrading tty sessions to
+          graphical ones once a compositor is invoked.
+        * systemd-socket-proxy gained a new switch --exit-idle-time= for
+          configuring an exit-on-idle time.
+        * systemd-repart's --empty= setting gained a new value "create". If
+          specified a new empty regular disk image file is created under the
+          specified name. Its size may be specified with the new --size=
+          option. The latter is also supported without the "create" mode, in
+          order to grow existing disk image files to the specified size. These
+          two new options are useful when creating or manipulating disk images
+          instead of operating on actual block devices.
+        * systemd-repart drop-ins now support a new UUID= setting to control
+          the UUID to assign to a newly created partition.
+        * systemd-repart's SizeMin= per-partition parameter now defaults to 10M
+          instead of 0.
+        * systemd-repart's Label= setting now support the usual, simple
+          specifier expansion.
+        * systemd-homed's LUKS backend gained the ability to discard empty file
+          system blocks automatically when the user logs out. This is enabled
+          by default to ensure that home directories take minimal space when
+          logged out but get full size guarantees when logged in. This may be
+          controlled with the new --luks-offline-discard= switch to homectl.
+        * If systemd-homed detects that /home/ is encrypted as a whole it will
+          now default to the directory or subvolume backends instead of the
+          LUKS backend, in order to avoid double encryption. The default
+          storage and file system may now be configured explicitly, too, via
+          the new /etc/systemd/homed.conf configuration file.
+        * systemd-homed now supports unlocking home directories with FIDO2
+          security tokens that support the 'hmac-secret' extension, in addition
+          to the existing support for PKCS#11 security token unlocking
+          support. Note that many recent hardware security tokens support both
+          interfaces. The FIDO2 support is accessible via homectl's
+          --fido2-device= option.
+        * homectl's --pkcs11-uri= setting now accepts two special parameters:
+          if "auto" is specified and only one suitable PKCS#11 security token
+          is plugged in, its URL is automatically determined and enrolled for
+          unlocking the home directory. If "list" is specified a brief table of
+          suitable PKCS#11 security tokens is shown. Similar, the new
+          --fido2-device= option also supports these two special values, for
+          automatically selecting and listing suitable FIDO2 devices.
+        * The /etc/crypttab tmp option now optionally takes an argument
+          selecting the file system to use. Moreover, the default is now
+          changed from ext2 to ext4.
+        * There's a new /etc/crypttab option "keyfile-erase". If specified the
+          key file listed in the same line is removed after use, regardless if
+          volume activation was successful or not. This is useful if the key
+          file is only acquired transiently at runtime and shall be erased
+          before the system continues to boot.
+        * There's also a new /etc/crypttab option "try-empty-password". If
+          specified, before asking the user for a password it is attempted to
+          unlock the volume with an empty password. This is useful for
+          installing encrypted images whose password shall be set on first boot
+          instead of at installation time.
+        * systemd-cryptsetup will now attempt to load the keys to unlock
+          volumes with automatically from files in
+          /etc/cryptsetup-keys.d/<volume>.key and
+          /run/cryptsetup-keys.d/<volume>.key, if any of these files exist.
+        * systemd-cryptsetup may now activate Microsoft BitLocker volumes via
+          /etc/crypttab, during boot.
+        * logind.conf gained a new RuntimeDirectoryInodesMax= setting to
+          control the inode limit for the per-user $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR tmpfs
+          instance.
+        * A new generator systemd-xdg-autostart-generator has been added. It
+          generates systemd unit files from XDG autostart .desktop files, and
+          may be used to let the systemd user instance manage services that are
+          started automatically as part of the desktop session.
+        * "bootctl" gained a new verb "reboot-to-firmware" that may be used
+          to query and change the firmware's 'reboot into firmware' setup flag.
+        * systemd-firstboot gained a new switch --kernel-command-line= that may
+          be used to initialize the /etc/kernel/cmdline file of the image. It
+          also gained a new switch --root-password-hashed= which is like
+          --root-password= but accepts a pre-hashed UNIX password as
+          argument. The new option --delete-root-password may be used to unset
+          any password for the root user (dangerous!). The --root-shell= switch
+          may be used to control the shell to use for the root account. A new
+          --force option may be used to override any already set settings with
+          the parameters specified on the command line (by default, the tool
+          will not override what has already been set before, i.e. is purely
+          incremental).
+        * systemd-firstboot gained support for a new --image= switch, which is
+          similar to --root= but accepts the path to a disk image file, on
+          which it then operates.
+        * A new sd-path.h API has been added to libsystemd. It provides a
+          simple API for retrieving various search paths and primary
+          directories for various resources.
+        * A new call sd_notify_barrier() has been added to the sd-daemon.h
+          API. The call will block until all previously sent sd_notify()
+          messages have been processed by the service manager. This is useful
+          to remove races caused by a process already having disappeared at the
+          time a notification message is processed by the service manager,
+          making correct attribution impossible. The systemd-notify tool will
+          now make use of this call implicitly, but this can be turned off again
+          via the new --no-block switch.
+        * When sending a file descriptor (fd) to the service manager to keep
+          track of, using the sd_notify() mechanism, a new parameter FDPOLL=0
+          may be specified. If passed the service manager will refrain from
+          poll()ing on the file descriptor. Traditionally (and when the
+          parameter is not specified), the service manager will poll it for
+          POLLHUP or POLLERR events, and immediately close the fds in that
+          case.
+        * The service manager (PID1) gained a new D-Bus method call
+          SetShowStatus() which may be used to control whether it shall show
+          boot-time status output on the console. This method has a similar
+          effect to sending SIGRTMIN+20/SIGRTMIN+21 to PID 1.
+        * The sd-bus API gained a number of convenience functions that take
+          va_list arguments rather than "...". For example, there's now
+          sd_bus_call_methodv() to match sd_bus_call_method(). Those calls make
+          it easier to build wrappers that accept variadic arguments and want
+          to pass a ready va_list structure to sd-bus.
+        * sd-bus vtable entries can have a new SD_BUS_VTABLE_ABSOLUTE_OFFSET
+          flag which alters how the userdata pointer to pass to the callbacks
+          is determined. When the flag is set, the offset field is converted
+          as-is into a pointer, without adding it to the object pointer the
+          vtable is associated with.
+        * sd-bus now exposes four new functions:
+          sd_bus_interface_name_is_valid() + sd_bus_service_name_is_valid() +
+          sd_bus_member_name_is_valid() + sd_bus_object_path_is_valid() will
+          validate strings to check if they qualify as various D-Bus concepts.
+        * The sd-bus API gained the SD_BUS_METHOD_WITH_ARGS(),
+          that simplify adding argument names to D-Bus methods and signals.
+        * The man pages for the sd-bus and sd-hwdb APIs have been completed.
+        * Various D-Bus APIs of systemd daemons now have man pages that
+          document the methods, signals and properties.
+        * The expectations on user/group name syntax are now documented in
+          detail; documentation on how classic home directories may be
+          converted into home directories managed by homed has been added;
+          documentation regarding integration of homed/userdb functionality in
+          desktops has been added:
+        * Documentation for the on-disk Journal file format has been updated
+          and has now moved to:
+        * The interface for containers (
+          has been extended by a set of environment variables that expose
+          select fields from the host's os-release file to the container
+          payload. Similarly, host's os-release files can be mounted into the
+          container underneath /run/host. Together, those mechanisms provide a
+          standardized way to expose information about the host to the
+          container payload. Both interfaces are implemented in systemd-nspawn.
+        * All D-Bus services shipped in systemd now implement the generic
+          LogControl1 D-Bus API which allows clients to change log level +
+          target of the service during runtime.
+        * Only relevant for developers: the mkosi.default symlink has been
+          dropped from version control. Please create a symlink to one of the
+          distribution-specific defaults in .mkosi/ based on your preference.
+        Contributions from: 24bisquitz, Adam Nielsen, Alan Perry, Alexander
+        Malafeev, Amitanand.Chikorde, Alin Popa, Alvin Šipraga, Amos Bird,
+        Andreas Rammhold, AndreRH, Andrew Doran, Anita Zhang, Ankit Jain,
+        antznin, Arnaud Ferraris, Arthur Moraes do Lago, Arusekk, Balaji
+        Punnuru, Balint Reczey, Bastien Nocera, bemarek, Benjamin Berg,
+        Benjamin Dahlhoff, Benjamin Robin, Chris Down, Chris Kerr, Christian
+        Göttsche, Christian Hesse, Christian Oder, Ciprian Hacman, Clinton Roy,
+        codicodi, Corey Hinshaw, Daan De Meyer, Dana Olson, Dan Callaghan,
+        Daniel Fullmer, Daniel Rusek, Dan Streetman, Dave Reisner, David
+        Edmundson, David Wood, Denis Pronin, Diego Escalante Urrelo, Dimitri
+        John Ledkov, dolphrundgren, duguxy, Einsler Lee, Elisei Roca, Emmanuel
+        Garette, Eric Anderson, Eric DeVolder, Evgeny Vereshchagin,
+        ExtinctFire, fangxiuning, Ferran Pallarès Roca, Filipe Brandenburger,
+        Filippo Falezza, Finn, Florian Klink, Florian Mayer, Franck Bui,
+        Frantisek Sumsal, gaurav, Georg Müller, Gergely Polonkai, Giedrius
+        Statkevičius, Gigadoc2, gogogogi, Gaurav Singh, gzjsgdsb, Hans de
+        Goede, Haochen Tong, ianhi, ignapk, Jakov Smolic, James T. Lee, Jan
+        Janssen, Jan Klötzke, Jan Palus, Jay Burger, Jeremy Cline, Jérémy
+        Rosen, Jian-Hong Pan, Jiri Slaby, Joel Shapiro, Joerg Behrmann, Jörg
+        Thalheim, Jouke Witteveen, Kai-Heng Feng, Kenny Levinsen, Kevin
+        Kuehler, Kumar Kartikeya Dwivedi, layderv, laydervus, Lénaïc Huard,
+        Lennart Poettering, Lidong Zhong, Luca Boccassi, Luca BRUNO, Lucas
+        Werkmeister, Lukas Klingsbo, Lukáš Nykrýn, Łukasz Stelmach, Maciej
+        S. Szmigiero, MadMcCrow, Marc-André Lureau, Marcel Holtmann, Marc
+        Kleine-Budde, Martin Hundebøll, Matthew Leeds, Matt Ranostay, Maxim
+        Fomin, MaxVerevkin, Michael Biebl, Michael Chapman, Michael Gubbels,
+        Michael Marley, Michał Bartoszkiewicz, Michal Koutný, Michal Sekletár,
+        Mike Gilbert, Mike Kazantsev, Mikhail Novosyolov, ml, Motiejus Jakštys,
+        nabijaczleweli, nerdopolis, Niccolò Maggioni, Niklas Hambüchen, Norbert
+        Lange, Paul Cercueil, pelzvieh, Peter Hutterer, Piero La Terza, Pieter
+        Lexis, Piotr Drąg, Rafael Fontenelle, Richard Petri, Ronan Pigott, Ross
+        Lagerwall, Rubens Figueiredo, satmandu, Sean-StarLabs, Sebastian
+        Jennen, sterlinghughes, Surhud More, Susant Sahani, szb512, Thomas
+        Haller, Tobias Hunger, Tom, Tomáš Pospíšek, Tomer Shechner, Tom Hughes,
+        Topi Miettinen, Tudor Roman, Uwe Kleine-König, Valery0xff, Vito Caputo,
+        Vladimir Panteleev, Vladyslav Tronko, Wen Yang, Yegor Vialov, Yigal
+        Korman, Yi Gao, YmrDtnJu, Yuri Chornoivan, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew
+        Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Zhu Li, Дамјан Георгиевски, наб
+        – Warsaw, 2020-07-30
+        * A new tool "systemd-repart" has been added, that operates as an
+          idempotent declarative repartitioner for GPT partition tables.
+          Specifically, a set of partitions that must or may exist can be
+          configured via drop-in files, and during every boot the partition
+          table on disk is compared with these files, creating missing
+          partitions or growing existing ones based on configurable relative
+          and absolute size constraints. The tool is strictly incremental,
+          i.e. does not delete, shrink or move partitions, but only adds and
+          grows them. The primary use-case is OS images that ship in minimized
+          form, that on first boot are grown to the size of the underlying
+          block device or augmented with additional partitions. For example,
+          the root partition could be extended to cover the whole disk, or a
+          swap or /home partitions could be added on first boot. It can also be
+          used for systems that use an A/B update scheme but ship images with
+          just the A partition, with B added on first boot. The tool is
+          primarily intended to be run in the initrd, shortly before
+          transitioning into the host OS, but can also be run after the
+          transition took place. It automatically discovers the disk backing
+          the root file system, and should hence not require any additional
+          configuration besides the partition definition drop-ins. If no
+          configuration drop-ins are present, no action is taken.
+        * A new component "userdb" has been added, along with a small daemon
+          "systemd-userdbd.service" and a client tool "userdbctl". The framework
+          allows defining rich user and group records in a JSON format,
+          extending on the classic "struct passwd" and "struct group"
+          structures. Various components in systemd have been updated to
+          process records in this format, including systemd-logind and
+          pam-systemd. The user records are intended to be extensible, and
+          allow setting various resource management, security and runtime
+          parameters that shall be applied to processes and sessions of the
+          user as they log in. This facility is intended to allow associating
+          such metadata directly with user/group records so that they can be
+          produced, extended and consumed in unified form. We hope that
+          eventually frameworks such as sssd will generate records this way, so
+          that for the first time resource management and various other
+          per-user settings can be configured in LDAP directories and then
+          provided to systemd (specifically to systemd-logind and pam-system)
+          to apply on login. For further details see:
+        * A small new service systemd-homed.service has been added, that may be
+          used to securely manage home directories with built-in encryption.
+          The complete user record data is unified with the home directory,
+          thus making home directories naturally migratable. Its primary
+          back-end is based on LUKS volumes, but fscrypt, plain directories,
+          and other storage schemes are also supported. This solves a couple of
+          problems we saw with traditional ways to manage home directories, in
+          particular when it comes to encryption. For further discussion of
+          this, see the video of Lennart's talk at AllSystemsGo! 2019:
+          For further details about the format and expectations on home
+          directories this new daemon makes, see:
+        * systemd-journald is now multi-instantiable. In addition to the main
+          instance systemd-journald.service there's now a template unit
+          systemd-journald@.service, with each instance defining a new named
+          log 'namespace' (whose name is specified via the instance part of the
+          unit name). A new unit file setting LogNamespace= has been added,
+          taking such a namespace name, that assigns services to the specified
+          log namespaces. As each log namespace is serviced by its own
+          independent journal daemon, this functionality may be used to improve
+          performance and increase isolation of applications, at the price of
+          losing global message ordering. Each instance of journald has a
+          separate set of configuration files, with possibly different disk
+          usage limitations and other settings.
+          journalctl now takes a new option --namespace= to show logs from a
+          specific log namespace. The sd-journal.h API gained
+          sd_journal_open_namespace() for opening the log stream of a specific
+          log namespace. systemd-journald also gained the ability to exit on
+          idle, which is useful in the context of log namespaces, as this means
+          log daemons for log namespaces can be activated automatically on
+          demand and will stop automatically when no longer used, minimizing
+          resource usage.
+        * When systemd-tmpfiles copies a file tree using the 'C' line type it
+          will now label every copied file according to the SELinux database.
+        * When systemd/PID 1 detects it is used in the initrd it will now boot
+          into rather than by default. This should
+          make it simpler to build initrds with systemd as for many cases the
+          only difference between a host OS image and an initrd image now is
+          the presence of the /etc/initrd-release file.
+        * A new kernel command line option systemd.cpu_affinity= is now
+          understood. It's equivalent to the CPUAffinity= option in
+          /etc/systemd/system.conf and allows setting the CPU mask for PID 1
+          itself and the default for all other processes.
+        * When systemd/PID 1 is reloaded (with systemctl daemon-reload or
+          equivalent), the SELinux database is now reloaded, ensuring that
+          sockets and other file system objects are generated taking the new
+          database into account.
+        * systemd/PID 1 accepts a new "" setting, and
+          "quiet" has been changed to imply that instead of
+          "". In this mode, only messages about errors
+          and significant delays in boot are shown on the console.
+        * The sd-event.h API gained native support for the new Linux "pidfd"
+          concept. This permits watching processes using file descriptors
+          instead of PID numbers, which fixes a number of races and makes
+          process supervision more robust and efficient. All of systemd's
+          components will now use pidfds if the kernel supports it for process
+          watching, with the exception of PID 1 itself, unfortunately. We hope
+          to move PID 1 to exclusively using pidfds too eventually, but this
+          requires some more kernel work first. (Background: PID 1 watches
+          processes using waitid() with the P_ALL flag, and that does not play
+          together nicely with pidfds yet.)
+        * Closely related to this, the sd-event.h API gained two new calls
+          sd_event_source_send_child_signal() (for sending a signal to a
+          watched process) and sd_event_source_get_child_process_own() (for
+          marking a process so that it is killed automatically whenever the
+          event source watching it is freed).
+        * systemd-networkd gained support for configuring Token Bucket Filter
+          (TBF) parameters in its qdisc configuration support. Similarly,
+          support for Stochastic Fairness Queuing (SFQ), Controlled-Delay
+          Active Queue Management (CoDel), and Fair Queue (FQ) has been added.
+        * systemd-networkd gained support for Intermediate Functional Block
+          (IFB) network devices.
+        * systemd-networkd gained support for configuring multi-path IP routes,
+          using the new MultiPathRoute= setting in the [Route] section.
+        * systemd-networkd's DHCPv4 client has been updated to support a new
+          SendDecline= option. If enabled, duplicate address detection is done
+          after a DHCP offer is received from the server. If a conflict is
+          detected, the address is declined. The DHCPv4 client also gained
+          support for a new RouteMTUBytes= setting that allows to configure the
+          MTU size to be used for routes generated from DHCPv4 leases.
+        * The PrefixRoute= setting in systemd-networkd's [Address] section of
+          .network files has been deprecated, and replaced by AddPrefixRoute=,
+          with its sense inverted.
+        * The Gateway= setting of [Route] sections of .network files gained
+          support for a special new value "_dhcp". If set, the configured
+          static route uses the gateway host configured via DHCP.
+        * New User= and SuppressPrefixLength= settings have been implemented
+          for the [RoutingPolicyRule] section of .network files to configure
+          source routing based on UID ranges and prefix length, respectively.
+        * The Type= match property of .link files has been generalized to
+          always match the device type shown by 'networkctl status', even for
+          devices where udev does not set DEVTYPE=. This allows e.g. Type=ether
+          to be used.
+        * sd-bus gained a new API call sd_bus_message_sensitive() that marks a
+          D-Bus message object as "sensitive". Those objects are erased from
+          memory when they are freed. This concept is intended to be used for
+          messages that contain security sensitive data. A new flag
+          SD_BUS_VTABLE_SENSITIVE has been introduced as well to mark methods
+          in sd-bus vtables, causing any incoming and outgoing messages of
+          those methods to be implicitly marked as "sensitive".
+        * sd-bus gained a new API call sd_bus_message_dump() for dumping the
+          contents of a message (or parts thereof) to standard output for
+          debugging purposes.
+        * systemd-sysusers gained support for creating users with the primary
+          group named differently than the user.
+        * systemd-growfs (i.e. the x-systemd.growfs mount option in /etc/fstab)
+          gained support for growing XFS partitions. Previously it supported
+          only ext4 and btrfs partitions.
+        * The support for /etc/crypttab gained a new x-initrd.attach option. If
+          set, the specified encrypted volume is unlocked already in the
+          initrd. This concept corresponds to the x-initrd.mount option in
+          /etc/fstab.
+        * systemd-cryptsetup gained native support for unlocking encrypted
+          volumes utilizing PKCS#11 smartcards, i.e. for example to bind
+          encryption of volumes to YubiKeys. This is exposed in the new
+          pkcs11-uri= option in /etc/crypttab.
+        * The /etc/fstab support in systemd now supports two new mount options
+          x-systemd.{required,wanted}-by=, for explicitly configuring the units
+          that the specified mount shall be pulled in by, in place of
+          the usual
+        * The web site has been relaunched, directly
+          populated with most of the documentation included in the systemd
+          repository. systemd also acquired a new logo, thanks to Tobias
+          Bernard.
+        * systemd-udevd gained support for managing "alternative" network
+          interface names, as supported by new Linux kernels. For the first
+          time this permits assigning multiple (and longer!) names to a network
+          interface. systemd-udevd will now by default assign the names
+          generated via all supported naming schemes to each interface. This
+          may be further tweaked with .link files and the AlternativeName= and
+          AlternativeNamesPolicy= settings. Other components of systemd have
+          been updated to support the new alternative names wherever
+          appropriate. For example, systemd-nspawn will now generate
+          alternative interface names for the host-facing side of container
+          veth links based on the full container name without truncation.
+        * systemd-nspawn interface naming logic has been updated in another way
+          too: if the main interface name (i.e. as opposed to new-style
+          "alternative" names) based on the container name is truncated, a
+          simple hashing scheme is used to give different interface names to
+          multiple containers whose names all begin with the same prefix. Since
+          this changes the primary interface names pointing to containers if
+          truncation happens, the old scheme may still be requested by
+          selecting an older naming scheme, via the net.naming-scheme= kernel
+          command line option.
+        * PrivateUsers= in service files now works in services run by the
+          systemd --user per-user instance of the service manager.
+        * A new per-service sandboxing option ProtectClock= has been added that
+          locks down write access to the system clock. It takes away device
+          node access to /dev/rtc as well as the system calls that set the
+          system clock and the CAP_SYS_TIME and CAP_WAKE_ALARM capabilities.
+          Note that this option does not affect access to auxiliary services
+          that allow changing the clock, for example access to
+          systemd-timedated.
+        * The systemd-id128 tool gained a new "show" verb for listing or
+          resolving a number of well-known UUIDs/128bit IDs, currently mostly
+          GPT partition table types.
+        * The Discoverable Partitions Specification has been updated to support
+          /var and /var/tmp partition discovery. Support for this has been
+          added to systemd-gpt-auto-generator. For details see:
+        * "systemctl list-unit-files" has been updated to show a new column
+          with the suggested enablement state based on the vendor preset files
+          for the respective units.
+        * "systemctl" gained a new option "--with-dependencies". If specified
+          commands such as "systemctl status" or "systemctl cat" will now show
+          all specified units along with all units they depend on.
+        * networkctl gained support for showing per-interface logs in its
+          "status" output.
+        * systemd-networkd-wait-online gained support for specifying the maximum
+          operational state to wait for, and to wait for interfaces to
+          disappear.
+        * The [Match] section of .link and .network files now supports a new
+          option PermanentMACAddress= which may be used to check against the
+          permanent MAC address of a network device even if a randomized MAC
+          address is used.
+        * The [TrafficControlQueueingDiscipline] section in .network files has
+          been renamed to [NetworkEmulator] with the "NetworkEmulator" prefix
+          dropped from the individual setting names.
+        * Any .link and .network files that have an empty [Match] section (this
+          also includes empty and commented-out files) will now be
+          rejected. systemd-udev and systemd-networkd started warning about
+          such files in version 243.
+        * systemd-logind will now validate access to the operation of changing
+          the virtual terminal via a polkit action. By default, only users
+          with at least one session on a local VT are granted permission.
+        * When systemd sets up PAM sessions that invoked service processes
+          shall run in, the pam_setcred() API is now invoked, thus permitting
+          PAM modules to set additional credentials for the processes.
+        * portablectl attach/detach verbs now accept --now and --enable options
+          to combine attachment with enablement and invocation, or detachment
+          with stopping and disablement.
+        * UPGRADE ISSUE: a bug where some jobs were trimmed as redundant was
+          fixed, which in turn exposed bugs in unit configuration of services
+          which have Type=oneshot and should only run once, but do not have
+          RemainAfterExit=yes set. Without RemainAfterExit=yes, a one-shot
+          service may be started again after exiting successfully, for example
+          as a dependency in another transaction. Affected services included
+          some internal systemd services (most notably
+          systemd-vconsole-setup.service, which was updated to have
+          RemainAfterExit=yes), and plymouth-start.service. Please ensure that
+          plymouth has been suitably updated or patched before upgrading to
+          this systemd release. See
+ for some
+          additional discussion.
+        Contributions from: AJ Bagwell, Alin Popa, Andreas Rammhold, Anita
+        Zhang, Ansgar Burchardt, Antonio Russo, Arian van Putten, Ashley Davis,
+        Balint Reczey, Bart Willems, Bastien Nocera, Benjamin Dahlhoff, Charles
+        (Chas) Williams, cheese1, Chris Down, Chris Murphy, Christian Ehrhardt,
+        Christian Göttsche, cvoinf, Daan De Meyer, Daniele Medri, Daniel Rusek,
+        Daniel Shahaf, Dann Frazier, Dan Streetman, Dariusz Gadomski, David
+        Michael, Dimitri John Ledkov, Emmanuel Bourg, Evgeny Vereshchagin,
+        ezst036, Felipe Sateler, Filipe Brandenburger, Florian Klink, Franck
+        Bui, Fran Dieguez, Frantisek Sumsal, Greg "GothAck" Miell, Guilhem
+        Lettron, Guillaume Douézan-Grard, Hans de Goede, HATAYAMA Daisuke, Iain
+        Lane, James Buren, Jan Alexander Steffens (heftig), Jérémy Rosen, Jin
+        Park, Jun'ichi Nomura, Kai Krakow, Kevin Kuehler, Kevin P. Fleming,
+        Lennart Poettering, Leonid Bloch, Leonid Evdokimov, lothrond, Luca
+        Boccassi, Lukas K, Lynn Kirby, Mario Limonciello, Mark Deneen, Matthew
+        Leeds, Michael Biebl, Michal Koutný, Michal Sekletár, Mike Auty, Mike
+        Gilbert, mtron, nabijaczleweli, Naïm Favier, Nate Jones, Norbert Lange,
+        Oliver Giles, Paul Davey, Paul Menzel, Peter Hutterer, Piotr Drąg, Rafa
+        Couto, Raphael, rhn, Robert Scheck, Rocka, Romain Naour, Ryan Attard,
+        Sascha Dewald, Shengjing Zhu, Slava Kardakov, Spencer Michaels, Sylvain
+        Plantefeve, Stanislav Angelovič, Susant Sahani, Thomas Haller, Thomas
+        Schmitt, Timo Schlüßler, Timo Wilken, Tobias Bernard, Tobias Klauser,
+        Tobias Stoeckmann, Topi Miettinen, tsia, WataruMatsuoka, Wieland
+        Hoffmann, Wilhelm Schuster, Will Fleming, xduugu, Yong Cong Sin, Yuri
+        Chornoivan, Yu Watanabe, Zach Smith, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Zeyu
+        DONG
+        – Warsaw, 2020-03-06
+        * Support for the cpuset cgroups v2 controller has been added.
+          Processes may be restricted to specific CPUs using the new
+          AllowedCPUs= setting, and to specific memory NUMA nodes using the new
+          AllowedMemoryNodes= setting.
+        * The signal used in restart jobs (as opposed to e.g. stop jobs) may
+          now be configured using a new RestartKillSignal= setting. This
+          allows units which signals to request termination to implement
+          different behaviour when stopping in preparation for a restart.
+        * "systemctl clean" may now be used also for socket, mount, and swap
+          units.
+        * systemd will also read configuration options from the EFI variable
+          SystemdOptions. This may be used to configure systemd behaviour when
+          modifying the kernel command line is inconvenient, but configuration
+          on disk is read too late, for example for the options related to
+          cgroup hierarchy setup. 'bootctl systemd-efi-options' may be used to
+          set the EFI variable.
+        * systemd will now disable printk ratelimits in early boot. This should
+          allow us to capture more logs from the early boot phase where normal
+          storage is not available and the kernel ring buffer is used for
+          logging. Configuration on the kernel command line has higher priority
+          and overrides the systemd setting.
+          systemd programs which log to /dev/kmsg directly use internal
+          ratelimits to prevent runaway logging. (Normally this is only used
+          during early boot, so in practice this change has very little
+          effect.)
+        * Unit files now support top level dropin directories of the form
+          <unit_type>.d/ (e.g. service.d/) that may be used to add configuration
+          that affects all corresponding unit files.
+        * systemctl gained support for 'stop --job-mode=triggering' which will
+          stop the specified unit and any units which could trigger it.
+        * Unit status display now includes units triggering and triggered by
+          the unit being shown.
+        * The RuntimeMaxSec= setting is now supported by scopes, not just
+          .service units. This is particularly useful for PAM sessions which
+          create a scope unit for the user login. systemd.runtime_max_sec=
+          setting may used with the pam_systemd module to limit the duration
+          of the PAM session, for example for time-limited logins.
+        * A new @pkey system call group is now defined to make it easier to
+          allow-list memory protection syscalls for containers and services
+          which need to use them.
+        * systemd-udevd: removed the 30s timeout for killing stale workers on
+          exit. systemd-udevd now waits for workers to finish. The hard-coded
+          exit timeout of 30s was too short for some large installations, where
+          driver initialization could be prematurely interrupted during initrd
+          processing if the root file system had been mounted and init was
+          preparing to switch root. If udevd is run without systemd and workers
+          are hanging while udevd receives an exit signal, udevd will now exit
+          when udev.event_timeout is reached for the last hanging worker. With
+          systemd, the exit timeout can additionally be configured using
+          TimeoutStopSec= in systemd-udevd.service.
+        * udev now provides a program (fido_id) that identifies FIDO CTAP1
+          ("U2F")/CTAP2 security tokens based on the usage declared in their
+          report and descriptor and outputs suitable environment variables.
+          This replaces the externally maintained allow lists of all known
+          security tokens that were used previously.
+        * Automatically generated autosuspend udev rules for allow-listed
+          devices have been imported from the Chromium OS project. This should
+          improve power saving with many more devices.
+        * udev gained a new "CONST{key}=value" setting that allows matching
+          against system-wide constants without forking a helper binary.
+          Currently "arch" and "virt" keys are supported.
+        * udev now opens CDROMs in non-exclusive mode when querying their
+          capabilities. This should fix issues where other programs trying to
+          use the CDROM cannot gain access to it, but carries a risk of
+          interfering with programs writing to the disk, if they did not open
+          the device in exclusive mode as they should.
+        * systemd-networkd does not create a default route for IPv4 link local
+          addressing anymore. The creation of the route was unexpected and was
+          breaking routing in various cases, but people who rely on it being
+          created implicitly will need to adjust. Such a route may be requested
+          with DefaultRouteOnDevice=yes.
+          Similarly, systemd-networkd will not assign a link-local IPv6 address
+          when IPv6 link-local routing is not enabled.
+        * Receive and transmit buffers may now be configured on links with
+          the new RxBufferSize= and TxBufferSize= settings.
+        * systemd-networkd may now advertise additional IPv6 routes. A new
+          [IPv6RoutePrefix] section with Route= and LifetimeSec= options is
+          now supported.
+        * systemd-networkd may now configure "next hop" routes using the
+          [NextHop] section and Gateway= and Id= settings.
+        * systemd-networkd will now retain DHCP config on restarts by default
+          (but this may be overridden using the KeepConfiguration= setting).
+          The default for SendRelease= has been changed to true.
+        * The DHCPv4 client now uses the OPTION_INFORMATION_REFRESH_TIME option
+          received from the server.
+          The client will use the received SIP server list if UseSIP=yes is
+          set.
+          The client may be configured to request specific options from the
+          server using a new RequestOptions= setting.
+          The client may be configured to send arbitrary options to the server
+          using a new SendOption= setting.
+          A new IPServiceType= setting has been added to configure the "IP
+          service type" value used by the client.
+        * The DHCPv6 client learnt a new PrefixDelegationHint= option to
+          request prefix hints in the DHCPv6 solicitation.
+        * The DHCPv4 server may be configured to send arbitrary options using
+          a new SendOption= setting.
+        * The DHCPv4 server may now be configured to emit SIP server list using
+          the new EmitSIP= and SIP= settings.
+        * systemd-networkd and networkctl may now renew DHCP leases on demand.
+          networkctl has a new 'networkctl renew' verb.
+        * systemd-networkd may now reconfigure links on demand. networkctl
+          gained two new verbs: "reload" will reload the configuration, and
+          "reconfigure DEVICE…" will reconfigure one or more devices.
+        * .network files may now match on SSID and BSSID of a wireless network,
+          i.e. the access point name and hardware address using the new SSID=
+          and BSSID= options. networkctl will display the current SSID and
+          BSSID for wireless links.
+          .network files may also match on the wireless network type using the
+          new WLANInterfaceType= option.
+        * systemd-networkd now includes default configuration that enables
+          link-local addressing when connected to an ad-hoc wireless network.
+        * systemd-networkd may configure the Traffic Control queueing
+          disciplines in the kernel using the new
+          [TrafficControlQueueingDiscipline] section and Parent=,
+          NetworkEmulatorDelaySec=, NetworkEmulatorDelayJitterSec=,
+          NetworkEmulatorPacketLimit=, NetworkEmulatorLossRate=,
+          NetworkEmulatorDuplicateRate= settings.
+        * systemd-tmpfiles gained a new w+ setting to append to files.
+        * systemd-analyze dump will now report when the memory configuration in
+          the kernel does not match what systemd has configured (usually,
+          because some external program has modified the kernel configuration
+          on its own).
+        * systemd-analyze gained a new --base-time= switch instructs the
+          'calendar' verb to resolve times relative to that timestamp instead
+          of the present time.
+        * journalctl --update-catalog now produces deterministic output (making
+          reproducible image builds easier).
+        * A new devicetree-overlay setting is now documented in the Boot Loader
+          Specification.
+        * The default value of the WatchdogSec= setting used in systemd
+          services (the ones bundled with the project itself) may be set at
+          configuration time using the -Dservice-watchdog= setting. If set to
+          empty, the watchdogs will be disabled.
+        * systemd-resolved validates IP addresses in certificates now when GnuTLS
+          is being used.
+        * libcryptsetup >= 2.0.1 is now required.
+        * A configuration option -Duser-path= may be used to override the $PATH
+          used by the user service manager. The default is again to use the same
+          path as the system manager.
+        * The systemd-id128 tool gained a new switch "-u" (or "--uuid") for
+          outputting the 128bit IDs in UUID format (i.e. in the "canonical
+          representation").
+        * Service units gained a new sandboxing option ProtectKernelLogs= which
+          makes sure the program cannot get direct access to the kernel log
+          buffer anymore, i.e. the syslog() system call (not to be confused
+          with the API of the same name in libc, which is not affected), the
+          /proc/kmsg and /dev/kmsg nodes and the CAP_SYSLOG capability are made
+          inaccessible to the service. It's recommended to enable this setting
+          for all services that should not be able to read from or write to the
+          kernel log buffer, which are probably almost all.
+        Contributions from: Aaron Plattner, Alcaro, Anita Zhang, Balint Reczey,
+        Bastien Nocera, Baybal Ni, Benjamin Bouvier, Benjamin Gilbert, Carlo
+        Teubner, cbzxt, Chen Qi, Chris Down, Christian Rebischke, Claudio
+        Zumbo, ClydeByrdIII, crashfistfight, Cyprien Laplace, Daniel Edgecumbe,
+        Daniel Gorbea, Daniel Rusek, Daniel Stuart, Dan Streetman, David
+        Pedersen, David Tardon, Dimitri John Ledkov, Dominique Martinet, Donald
+        A. Cupp Jr, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Fabian Henneke, Filipe Brandenburger,
+        Franck Bui, Frantisek Sumsal, Georg Müller, Hans de Goede, Haochen
+        Tong, HATAYAMA Daisuke, Iwan Timmer, Jan Janssen, Jan Kundrát, Jan
+        Synacek, Jan Tojnar, Jay Strict, Jérémy Rosen, Jóhann B. Guðmundsson,
+        Jonas Jelten, Jonas Thelemann, Justin Trudell, J. Xing, Kai-Heng Feng,
+        Kenneth D'souza, Kevin Becker, Kevin Kuehler, Lennart Poettering,
+        Léonard Gérard, Lorenz Bauer, Luca Boccassi, Maciej Stanczew, Mario
+        Limonciello, Marko Myllynen, Mark Stosberg, Martin Wilck, matthiasroos,
+        Michael Biebl, Michael Olbrich, Michael Tretter, Michal Sekletar,
+        Michal Sekletár, Michal Suchanek, Mike Gilbert, Mike Kazantsev, Nicolas
+        Douma, nikolas, Norbert Lange, pan93412, Pascal de Bruijn, Paul Menzel,
+        Pavel Hrdina, Peter Wu, Philip Withnall, Piotr Drąg, Rafael Fontenelle,
+        Renaud Métrich, Riccardo Schirone, RoadrunnerWMC, Ronan Pigott, Ryan
+        Attard, Sebastian Wick, Serge, Siddharth Chandrasekara, Steve Ramage,
+        Steve Traylen, Susant Sahani, Thibault Nélis, Tim Teichmann, Tom
+        Fitzhenry, Tommy J, Torsten Hilbrich, Vito Caputo, ypf791, Yu Watanabe,
+        Zach Smith, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        – Warsaw, 2019-11-29
+        * This release enables unprivileged programs (i.e. requiring neither
+          setuid nor file capabilities) to send ICMP Echo (i.e. ping) requests
+          by turning on the "net.ipv4.ping_group_range" sysctl of the Linux
+          kernel for the whole UNIX group range, i.e. all processes. This
+          change should be reasonably safe, as the kernel support for it was
+          specifically implemented to allow safe access to ICMP Echo for
+          processes lacking any privileges. If this is not desirable, it can be
+          disabled again by setting the parameter to "1 0".
+        * Previously, filters defined with SystemCallFilter= would have the
+          effect that any calling of an offending system call would terminate
+          the calling thread. This behaviour never made much sense, since
+          killing individual threads of unsuspecting processes is likely to
+          create more problems than it solves. With this release the default
+          action changed from killing the thread to killing the whole
+          process. For this to work correctly both a kernel version (>= 4.14)
+          and a libseccomp version (>= 2.4.0) supporting this new seccomp
+          action is required. If an older kernel or libseccomp is used the old
+          behaviour continues to be used. This change does not affect any
+          services that have no system call filters defined, or that use
+          SystemCallErrorNumber= (and thus see EPERM or another error instead
+          of being killed when calling an offending system call). Note that
+          systemd documentation always claimed that the whole process is
+          killed. With this change behaviour is thus adjusted to match the
+          documentation.
+        * On 64 bit systems, the "kernel.pid_max" sysctl is now bumped to
+          4194304 by default, i.e. the full 22bit range the kernel allows, up
+          from the old 16bit range. This should improve security and
+          robustness, as PID collisions are made less likely (though certainly
+          still possible). There are rumours this might create compatibility
+          problems, though at this moment no practical ones are known to
+          us. Downstream distributions are hence advised to undo this change in
+          their builds if they are concerned about maximum compatibility, but
+          for everybody else we recommend leaving the value bumped. Besides
+          improving security and robustness this should also simplify things as
+          the maximum number of allowed concurrent tasks was previously bounded
+          by both "kernel.pid_max" and "kernel.threads-max" and now effectively
+          only a single knob is left ("kernel.threads-max"). There have been
+          concerns that usability is affected by this change because larger PID
+          numbers are harder to type, but we believe the change from 5 digits
+          to 7 digits doesn't hamper usability.
+        * MemoryLow= and MemoryMin= gained hierarchy-aware counterparts,
+          DefaultMemoryLow= and DefaultMemoryMin=, which can be used to
+          hierarchically set default memory protection values for a particular
+          subtree of the unit hierarchy.
+        * Memory protection directives can now take a value of zero, allowing
+          explicit opting out of a default value propagated by an ancestor.
+        * systemd now defaults to the "unified" cgroup hierarchy setup during
+          build-time, i.e. -Ddefault-hierarchy=unified is now the build-time
+          default. Previously, -Ddefault-hierarchy=hybrid was the default. This
+          change reflects the fact that cgroupsv2 support has matured
+          substantially in both systemd and in the kernel, and is clearly the
+          way forward. Downstream production distributions might want to
+          continue to use -Ddefault-hierarchy=hybrid (or even =legacy) for
+          their builds as unfortunately the popular container managers have not
+          caught up with the kernel API changes.
+        * Man pages are not built by default anymore (html pages were already
+          disabled by default), to make development builds quicker. When
+          building systemd for a full installation with documentation, meson
+          should be called with -Dman=true and/or -Dhtml=true as appropriate.
+          The default was changed based on the assumption that quick one-off or
+          repeated development builds are much more common than full optimized
+          builds for installation, and people need to pass various other
+          options to when doing "proper" builds anyway, so the gain from making
+          development builds quicker is bigger than the one time disruption for
+          packagers.
+          Two scripts are created in the *build* directory to generate and
+          preview man and html pages on demand, e.g.:
+          build/man/man systemctl
+          build/man/html systemd.index
+        * libidn2 is used by default if both libidn2 and libidn are installed.
+          Please use -Dlibidn=true if libidn is preferred.
+        * The D-Bus "wire format" of the CPUAffinity= attribute is changed on
+          big-endian machines. Before, bytes were written and read in native
+          machine order as exposed by the native libc __cpu_mask interface.
+          Now, little-endian order is always used (CPUs 0–7 are described by
+          bits 0–7 in byte 0, CPUs 8–15 are described by byte 1, and so on).
+          This change fixes D-Bus calls that cross endianness boundary.
+          The presentation format used for CPUAffinity= by "systemctl show" and
+          "systemd-analyze dump" is changed to present CPU indices instead of
+          the raw __cpu_mask bitmask. For example, CPUAffinity=0-1 would be
+          shown as CPUAffinity=03000000000000000000000000000… (on
+          little-endian) or CPUAffinity=00000000000000300000000000000… (on
+          64-bit big-endian), and is now shown as CPUAffinity=0-1, matching the
+          input format. The maximum integer that will be printed in the new
+          format is 8191 (four digits), while the old format always used a very
+          long number (with the length varying by architecture), so they can be
+          unambiguously distinguished.
+        * /usr/sbin/halt.local is no longer supported. Implementation in
+          distributions was inconsistent and it seems this functionality was
+          very rarely used.
+          To replace this functionality, users should:
+          - either define a new unit and make it a dependency of
+            (systemctl add-wants my-halt-local.service)
+          - or move the shutdown script to /usr/lib/systemd/system-shutdown/
+            and ensure that it accepts "halt", "poweroff", "reboot", and
+            "kexec" as an argument, see the description in systemd-shutdown(8).
+        * When a [Match] section in .link or .network file is empty (contains
+          no match patterns), a warning will be emitted. Please add any "match
+          all" pattern instead, e.g. OriginalName=* or Name=* in case all
+          interfaces should really be matched.
+        * A new setting NUMAPolicy= may be used to set process memory
+          allocation policy. This setting can be specified in
+          /etc/systemd/system.conf and hence will set the default policy for
+          PID1. The default policy can be overridden on a per-service
+          basis. The related setting NUMAMask= is used to specify NUMA node
+          mask that should be associated with the selected policy.
+        * PID 1 will now listen to Out-Of-Memory (OOM) events the kernel
+          generates when processes it manages are reaching their memory limits,
+          and will place their units in a special state, and optionally kill or
+          stop the whole unit.
+        * The service manager will now expose bus properties for the IO
+          resources used by units. This information is also shown in "systemctl
+          status" now (for services that have IOAccounting=yes set). Moreover,
+          the IO accounting data is included in the resource log message
+          generated whenever a unit stops.
+        * Units may now configure an explicit timeout to wait for when killed
+          with SIGABRT, for example when a service watchdog is hit. Previously,
+          the regular TimeoutStopSec= timeout was applied in this case too —
+          now a separate timeout may be set using TimeoutAbortSec=.
+        * Services may now send a special WATCHDOG=trigger message with
+          sd_notify() to trigger an immediate "watchdog missed" event, and thus
+          trigger service termination. This is useful both for testing watchdog
+          handling, but also for defining error paths in services, that shall
+          be handled the same way as watchdog events.
+        * There are two new per-unit settings IPIngressFilterPath= and
+          IPEgressFilterPath= which allow configuration of a BPF program
+          (usually by specifying a path to a program uploaded to /sys/fs/bpf/)
+          to apply to the IP packet ingress/egress path of all processes of a
+          unit. This is useful to allow running systemd services with BPF
+          programs set up externally.
+        * systemctl gained a new "clean" verb for removing the state, cache,
+          runtime or logs directories of a service while it is terminated. The
+          new verb may also be used to remove the state maintained on disk for
+          timer units that have Persistent= configured.
+        * During the last phase of shutdown systemd will now automatically
+          increase the log level configured in the "kernel.printk" sysctl so
+          that any relevant loggable events happening during late shutdown are
+          made visible. Previously, loggable events happening so late during
+          shutdown were generally lost if the "kernel.printk" sysctl was set to
+          high thresholds, as regular logging daemons are terminated at that
+          time and thus nothing is written to disk.
+        * If processes terminated during the last phase of shutdown do not exit
+          quickly systemd will now show their names after a short time, to make
+          debugging easier. After a longer timeout they are forcibly killed,
+          as before.
+        * journalctl (and the other tools that display logs) will now highlight
+          warnings in yellow (previously, both LOG_NOTICE and LOG_WARNING where
+          shown in bright bold, now only LOG_NOTICE is). Moreover, audit logs
+          are now shown in blue color, to separate them visually from regular
+          logs. References to configuration files are now turned into clickable
+          links on terminals that support that.
+        * systemd-journald will now stop logging to /var/log/journal during
+          shutdown when /var/ is on a separate mount, so that it can be
+          unmounted safely during shutdown.
+        * systemd-resolved gained support for a new 'strict' DNS-over-TLS mode.
+        * systemd-resolved "Cache=" configuration option in resolved.conf has
+          been extended to also accept the 'no-negative' value. Previously,
+          only a boolean option was allowed (yes/no), having yes as the
+          default. If this option is set to 'no-negative', negative answers are
+          not cached while the old cache heuristics are used positive answers.
+          The default remains unchanged.
+        * The predictable naming scheme for network devices now supports
+          generating predictable names for "netdevsim" devices.
+          Moreover, the "en" prefix was dropped from the ID_NET_NAME_ONBOARD
+          udev property.
+          Those two changes form a new net.naming-policy-scheme= entry.
+          Distributions which want to preserve naming stability may want to set
+          the -Ddefault-net-naming-scheme= configuration option.
+        * systemd-networkd now supports MACsec, nlmon, IPVTAP and Xfrm
+          interfaces natively.
+        * systemd-networkd's bridge FDB support now allows configuration of a
+          destination address for each entry (Destination=), as well as the
+          VXLAN VNI (VNI=), as well as an option to declare what an entry is
+          associated with (AssociatedWith=).
+        * systemd-networkd's DHCPv4 support now understands a new MaxAttempts=
+          option for configuring the maximum number of DHCP lease requests.  It
+          also learnt a new BlackList= option for deny-listing DHCP servers (a
+          similar setting has also been added to the IPv6 RA client), as well
+          as a SendRelease= option for configuring whether to send a DHCP
+          RELEASE message when terminating.
+        * systemd-networkd's DHCPv4 and DHCPv6 stacks can now be configured
+          separately in the [DHCPv4] and [DHCPv6] sections.
+        * systemd-networkd's DHCP support will now optionally create an
+          implicit host route to the DNS server specified in the DHCP lease, in
+          addition to the routes listed explicitly in the lease. This should
+          ensure that in multi-homed systems DNS traffic leaves the systems on
+          the interface that acquired the DNS server information even if other
+          routes such as default routes exist. This behaviour may be turned on
+          with the new RoutesToDNS= option.
+        * systemd-networkd's VXLAN support gained a new option
+          GenericProtocolExtension= for enabling VXLAN Generic Protocol
+          Extension support, as well as IPDoNotFragment= for setting the IP
+          "Don't fragment" bit on outgoing packets. A similar option has been
+          added to the GENEVE support.
+        * In systemd-networkd's [Route] section you may now configure
+          FastOpenNoCookie= for configuring per-route TCP fast-open support, as
+          well as TTLPropagate= for configuring Label Switched Path (LSP) TTL
+          propagation. The Type= setting now supports local, broadcast,
+          anycast, multicast, any, xresolve routes, too.
+        * systemd-networkd's [Network] section learnt a new option
+          DefaultRouteOnDevice= for automatically configuring a default route
+          onto the network device.
+        * systemd-networkd's bridging support gained two new options ProxyARP=
+          and ProxyARPWifi= for configuring proxy ARP behaviour as well as
+          MulticastRouter= for configuring multicast routing behaviour. A new
+          option MulticastIGMPVersion= may be used to change bridge's multicast
+          Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) version.
+        * systemd-networkd's FooOverUDP support gained the ability to configure
+          local and peer IP addresses via Local= and Peer=. A new option
+          PeerPort= may be used to configure the peer's IP port.
+        * systemd-networkd's TUN support gained a new setting VnetHeader= for
+          tweaking Generic Segment Offload support.
+        * The address family for policy rules may be specified using the new
+          Family= option in the [RoutingPolicyRule] section.
+        * networkctl gained a new "delete" command for removing virtual network
+          devices, as well as a new "--stats" switch for showing device
+          statistics.
+        * networkd.conf gained a new setting SpeedMeter= and
+          SpeedMeterIntervalSec=, to measure bitrate of network interfaces. The
+          measured speed may be shown by 'networkctl status'.
+        * "networkctl status" now displays MTU and queue lengths, and more
+          detailed information about VXLAN and bridge devices.
+        * systemd-networkd's .network and .link files gained a new Property=
+          setting in the [Match] section, to match against devices with
+          specific udev properties.
+        * systemd-networkd's tunnel support gained a new option
+          AssignToLoopback= for selecting whether to use the loopback device
+          "lo" as underlying device.
+        * systemd-networkd's MACAddress= setting in the [Neighbor] section has
+          been renamed to LinkLayerAddress=, and it now allows configuration of
+          IP addresses, too.
+        * systemd-networkd's handling of the kernel's disable_ipv6 sysctl is
+          simplified: systemd-networkd will disable the sysctl (enable IPv6) if
+          IPv6 configuration (static or DHCPv6) was found for a given
+          interface. It will not touch the sysctl otherwise.
+        * The order of entries is $PATH used by the user manager instance was
+          changed to put bin/ entries before the corresponding sbin/ entries.
+          It is recommended to not rely on this order, and only ever have one
+          binary with a given name in the system paths under /usr.
+        * A new tool systemd-network-generator has been added that may generate
+          .network, .netdev and .link files from IP configuration specified on
+          the kernel command line in the format used by Dracut.
+        * The CriticalConnection= setting in .network files is now deprecated,
+          and replaced by a new KeepConfiguration= setting which allows more
+          detailed configuration of the IP configuration to keep in place.
+        * systemd-analyze gained a few new verbs:
+          - "systemd-analyze timestamp" parses and converts timestamps. This is
+            similar to the existing "systemd-analyze calendar" command which
+            does the same for recurring calendar events.
+          - "systemd-analyze timespan" parses and converts timespans (i.e.
+            durations as opposed to points in time).
+          - "systemd-analyze condition" will parse and test ConditionXYZ=
+            expressions.
+          - "systemd-analyze exit-status" will parse and convert exit status
+            codes to their names and back.
+          - "systemd-analyze unit-files" will print a list of all unit
+            file paths and unit aliases.
+        * SuccessExitStatus=, RestartPreventExitStatus=, and
+          RestartForceExitStatus= now accept exit status names (e.g. "DATAERR"
+          is equivalent to "65"). Those exit status name mappings may be
+          displayed with the systemd-analyze exit-status verb describe above.
+        * systemd-logind now exposes a per-session SetBrightness() bus call,
+          which may be used to securely change the brightness of a kernel
+          brightness device, if it belongs to the session's seat. By using this
+          call unprivileged clients can make changes to "backlight" and "leds"
+          devices securely with strict requirements on session membership.
+          Desktop environments may use this to generically make brightness
+          changes to such devices without shipping private SUID binaries or
+          udev rules for that purpose.
+        * "udevadm info" gained a --wait-for-initialization switch to wait for
+          a device to be initialized.
+        * systemd-hibernate-resume-generator will now look for resumeflags= on
+          the kernel command line, which is similar to rootflags= and may be
+          used to configure device timeout for the hibernation device.
+        * sd-event learnt a new API call sd_event_source_disable_unref() for
+          disabling and unref'ing an event source in a single function. A
+          related call sd_event_source_disable_unrefp() has been added for use
+          with gcc's cleanup extension.
+        * The sd-id128.h public API gained a new definition
+          SD_ID128_UUID_FORMAT_STR for formatting a 128bit ID in UUID format
+          with printf().
+        * "busctl introspect" gained a new switch --xml-interface for dumping
+          XML introspection data unmodified.
+        * PID 1 may now show the unit name instead of the unit description
+          string in its status output during boot. This may be configured in
+          the StatusUnitFormat= setting in /etc/systemd/system.conf or the
+          kernel command line option systemd.status_unit_format=.
+        * PID 1 now understands a new option KExecWatchdogSec= in
+          /etc/systemd/system.conf to set a watchdog timeout for kexec reboots.
+          Previously watchdog functionality was only available for regular
+          reboots. The new setting defaults to off, because we don't know in
+          the general case if the watchdog will be reset after kexec (some
+          drivers do reset it, but not all), and the new userspace might not be
+          configured to handle the watchdog.
+          Moreover, the old ShutdownWatchdogSec= setting has been renamed to
+          RebootWatchdogSec= to more clearly communicate what it is about. The
+          old name is still accepted for compatibility.
+        * The systemd.debug_shell kernel command line option now optionally
+          takes a tty name to spawn the debug shell on, which allows a
+          different tty to be selected than the built-in default.
+        * Service units gained a new ExecCondition= setting which will run
+          before ExecStartPre= and either continue execution of the unit (for
+          clean exit codes), stop execution without marking the unit failed
+          (for exit codes 1 through 254), or stop execution and fail the unit
+          (for exit code 255 or abnormal termination).
+        * A new service systemd-pstore.service has been added that pulls data
+          from /sys/fs/pstore/ and saves it to /var/lib/pstore for later
+          review.
+        * timedatectl gained new verbs for configuring per-interface NTP
+          service configuration for systemd-timesyncd.
+        * "localectl list-locales" won't list non-UTF-8 locales anymore. It's
+          2019. (You can set non-UTF-8 locales though, if you know their name.)
+        * If variable assignments in sysctl.d/ files are prefixed with "-" any
+          failures to apply them are now ignored.
+        * systemd-random-seed.service now optionally credits entropy when
+          applying the seed to the system. Set $SYSTEMD_RANDOM_SEED_CREDIT to
+          true for the service to enable this behaviour, but please consult the
+          documentation first, since this comes with a couple of caveats.
+        * systemd-random-seed.service is now a synchronization point for full
+          initialization of the kernel's entropy pool. Services that require
+          /dev/urandom to be correctly initialized should be ordered after this
+          service.
+        * The systemd-boot boot loader has been updated to optionally maintain
+          a random seed file in the EFI System Partition (ESP). During the boot
+          phase, this random seed is read and updated with a new seed
+          cryptographically derived from it. Another derived seed is passed to
+          the OS. The latter seed is then credited to the kernel's entropy pool
+          very early during userspace initialization (from PID 1). This allows
+          systems to boot up with a fully initialized kernel entropy pool from
+          earliest boot on, and thus entirely removes all entropy pool
+          initialization delays from systems using systemd-boot. Special care
+          is taken to ensure different seeds are derived on system images
+          replicated to multiple systems. "bootctl status" will show whether
+          a seed was received from the boot loader.
+        * bootctl gained two new verbs:
+          - "bootctl random-seed" will generate the file in ESP and an EFI
+            variable to allow a random seed to be passed to the OS as described
+            above.
+          - "bootctl is-installed" checks whether systemd-boot is currently
+            installed.
+        * bootctl will warn if it detects that boot entries are misconfigured
+          (for example if the kernel image was removed without purging the
+          bootloader entry).
+        * A new document has been added describing systemd's use and support
+          for the kernel's entropy pool subsystem:
+        * When the system is hibernated the swap device to write the
+          hibernation image to is now automatically picked from all available
+          swap devices, preferring the swap device with the highest configured
+          priority over all others, and picking the device with the most free
+          space if there are multiple devices with the highest priority.
+        * /etc/crypttab support has learnt a new keyfile-timeout= per-device
+          option that permits selecting the timeout how long to wait for a
+          device with an encryption key before asking for the password.
+        * IOWeight= has learnt to properly set the IO weight when using the
+          BFQ scheduler officially found in kernels 5.0+.
+        * A new mailing list has been created for reporting of security issues:
+ For mode details, see
+        Contributions from: Aaron Barany, Adrian Bunk, Alan Jenkins, Albrecht
+        Lohofener, Andrej Valek, Anita Zhang, Arian van Putten, Balint Reczey,
+        Bastien Nocera, Ben Boeckel, Benjamin Robin, camoz, Chen Qi, Chris
+        Chiu, Chris Down, Christian Göttsche, Christian Kellner, Clinton Roy,
+        Connor Reeder, Daniel Black, Daniel Lublin, Daniele Medri, Dan
+        Streetman, Dave Reisner, Dave Ross, David Art, David Tardon, Debarshi
+        Ray, Dimitri John Ledkov, Dominick Grift, Donald Buczek, Douglas
+        Christman, Eric DeVolder, EtherGraf, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Feldwor,
+        Felix Riemann, Florian Dollinger, Francesco Pennica, Franck Bui,
+        Frantisek Sumsal, Franz Pletz, frederik, Hans de Goede, Iago López
+        Galeiras, Insun Pyo, Ivan Shapovalov, Iwan Timmer, Jack, Jakob
+        Unterwurzacher, Jan Chren, Jan Klötzke, Jan Losinski, Jan Pokorný, Jan
+        Synacek, Jan-Michael Brummer, Jeka Pats, Jeremy Soller, Jérémy Rosen,
+        Jiri Pirko, Joe Lin, Joerg Behrmann, Joe Richey, Jóhann B. Guðmundsson,
+        Johannes Christ, Johannes Schmitz, Jonathan Rouleau, Jorge Niedbalski,
+        Jörg Thalheim, Kai Krakow, Kai Lüke, Karel Zak, Kashyap Chamarthy,
+        Krayushkin Konstantin, Lennart Poettering, Lubomir Rintel, Luca
+        Boccassi, Luís Ferreira, Marc-André Lureau, Markus Felten, Martin Pitt,
+        Matthew Leeds, Mattias Jernberg, Michael Biebl, Michael Olbrich,
+        Michael Prokop, Michael Stapelberg, Michael Zhivich, Michal Koutný,
+        Michal Sekletar, Mike Gilbert, Milan Broz, Miroslav Lichvar, mpe85,
+        Mr-Foo, Network Silence, Oliver Harley, pan93412, Paul Menzel, pEJipE,
+        Peter A. Bigot, Philip Withnall, Piotr Drąg, Rafael Fontenelle, Robert
+        Scheck, Roberto Santalla, Ronan Pigott, root, RussianNeuroMancer,
+        Sebastian Jennen, shinygold, Shreyas Behera, Simon Schricker, Susant
+        Sahani, Thadeu Lima de Souza Cascardo, Theo Ouzhinski, Thiebaud
+        Weksteen, Thomas Haller, Thomas Weißschuh, Tomas Mraz, Tommi Rantala,
+        Topi Miettinen, VD-Lycos, ven, Vladimir Yerilov, Wieland Hoffmann,
+        William A. Kennington III, William Wold, Xi Ruoyao, Yuri Chornoivan,
+        Yu Watanabe, Zach Smith, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Zhang Xianwei
+        – Camerino, 2019-09-03
+        * In .link files, MACAddressPolicy=persistent (the default) is changed
+          to cover more devices. For devices like bridges, tun, tap, bond, and
+          similar interfaces that do not have other identifying information,
+          the interface name is used as the basis for persistent seed for MAC
+          and IPv4LL addresses. The way that devices that were handled
+          previously is not changed, and this change is about covering more
+          devices then previously by the "persistent" policy.
+          MACAddressPolicy=random may be used to force randomized MACs and
+          IPv4LL addresses for a device if desired.
+          Hint: the log output from udev (at debug level) was enhanced to
+          clarify what policy is followed and which attributes are used.
+          `SYSTEMD_LOG_LEVEL=debug udevadm test-builtin net_setup_link /sys/class/net/<name>`
+          may be used to view this.
+          Hint: if a bridge interface is created without any slaves, and gains
+          a slave later, then now the bridge does not inherit slave's MAC.
+          To inherit slave's MAC, for example, create the following file:
+          ```
+          # /etc/systemd/network/
+          [Match]
+          Type=bridge
+          [Link]
+          MACAddressPolicy=none
+          ```
+        * The .device units generated by systemd-fstab-generator and other
+          generators do not automatically pull in the corresponding .mount unit
+          as a Wants= dependency. This means that simply plugging in the device
+          will not cause the mount unit to be started automatically. But please
+          note that the mount unit may be started for other reasons, in
+          particular if it is part of, and any unit which
+          (transitively) depends on is started.
+        * networkctl list/status/lldp now accept globbing wildcards for network
+          interface names to match against all existing interfaces.
+        * The $PIDFILE environment variable is set to point the absolute path
+          configured with PIDFile= for processes of that service.
+        * The fallback DNS server list was augmented with Cloudflare public DNS
+          servers. Use `-Ddns-servers=` to set a different fallback.
+        * A new special target will be started automatically
+          when a USB Device Controller is detected (which means that the system
+          is a USB peripheral).
+        * A new unit setting CPUQuotaPeriodSec= assigns the time period
+          relatively to which the CPU time quota specified by CPUQuota= is
+          measured.
+        * A new unit setting ProtectHostname= may be used to prevent services
+          from modifying hostname information (even if they otherwise would
+          have privileges to do so).
+        * A new unit setting NetworkNamespacePath= may be used to specify a
+          namespace for service or socket units through a path referring to a
+          Linux network namespace pseudo-file.
+        * The PrivateNetwork= setting and JoinsNamespaceOf= dependencies now
+          have an effect on .socket units: when used the listening socket is
+          created within the configured network namespace instead of the host
+          namespace.
+        * ExecStart= command lines in unit files may now be prefixed with ':'
+          in which case environment variable substitution is
+          disabled. (Supported for the other ExecXYZ= settings, too.)
+        * .timer units gained two new boolean settings OnClockChange= and
+          OnTimezoneChange= which may be used to also trigger a unit when the
+          system clock is changed or the local timezone is
+          modified. systemd-run has been updated to make these options easily
+          accessible from the command line for transient timers.
+        * Two new conditions for units have been added: ConditionMemory= may be
+          used to conditionalize a unit based on installed system
+          RAM. ConditionCPUs= may be used to conditionalize a unit based on
+          installed CPU cores.
+        * The @default system call filter group understood by SystemCallFilter=
+          has been updated to include the new rseq() system call introduced in
+          kernel 4.15.
+        * A new has been added that indicates that the system
+          time has been set from a local source (possibly imprecise). The
+          existing is stronger and indicates that the time has
+          been synchronized with a precise external source. Services where
+          approximate time is sufficient should use the new target.
+        * "systemctl start" (and related commands) learnt a new
+          --show-transaction option. If specified brief information about all
+          jobs queued because of the requested operation is shown.
+        * systemd-networkd recognizes a new operation state 'enslaved', used
+          (instead of 'degraded' or 'carrier') for interfaces which form a
+          bridge, bond, or similar, and an new 'degraded-carrier' operational
+          state used for the bond or bridge master interface when one of the
+          enslaved devices is not operational.
+        * .network files learnt the new IgnoreCarrierLoss= option for leaving
+          networks configured even if the carrier is lost.
+        * The RequiredForOnline= setting in .network files may now specify a
+          minimum operational state required for the interface to be considered
+          "online" by systemd-networkd-wait-online. Related to this
+          systemd-networkd-wait-online gained a new option --operational-state=
+          to configure the same, and its --interface= option was updated to
+          optionally also take an operational state specific for an interface.
+        * systemd-networkd-wait-online gained a new setting --any for waiting
+          for only one of the requested interfaces instead of all of them.
+        * systemd-networkd now implements L2TP tunnels.
+        * Two new .network settings UseAutonomousPrefix= and UseOnLinkPrefix=
+          may be used to cause autonomous and onlink prefixes received in IPv6
+          Router Advertisements to be ignored.
+        * New MulticastFlood=, NeighborSuppression=, and Learning= .network
+          file settings may be used to tweak bridge behaviour.
+        * The new TripleSampling= option in .network files may be used to
+          configure CAN triple sampling.
+        * A new .netdev settings PrivateKeyFile= and PresharedKeyFile= may be
+          used to point to private or preshared key for a WireGuard interface.
+        * /etc/crypttab now supports the same-cpu-crypt and
+          submit-from-crypt-cpus options to tweak encryption work scheduling
+          details.
+        * systemd-tmpfiles will now take a BSD file lock before operating on a
+          contents of directory. This may be used to temporarily exclude
+          directories from aging by taking the same lock (useful for example
+          when extracting a tarball into /tmp or /var/tmp as a privileged user,
+          which might create files with really old timestamps, which
+          nevertheless should not be deleted). For further details, see:
+        * systemd-tmpfiles' h line type gained support for the
+          FS_PROJINHERIT_FL ('P') file attribute (introduced in kernel 4.5),
+          controlling project quota inheritance.
+        * sd-boot and bootctl now implement support for an Extended Boot Loader
+          (XBOOTLDR) partition, that is intended to be mounted to /boot, in
+          addition to the ESP partition mounted to /efi or /boot/efi.
+          Configuration file fragments, kernels, initrds and other EFI images
+          to boot will be loaded from both the ESP and XBOOTLDR partitions.
+          The XBOOTLDR partition was previously described by the Boot Loader
+          Specification, but implementation was missing in sd-boot. Support for
+          this concept allows using the sd-boot boot loader in more
+          conservative scenarios where the boot loader itself is placed in the
+          ESP but the kernels to boot (and their metadata) in a separate
+          partition.
+        * A system may now be booted with systemd.volatile=overlay on the
+          kernel command line, which causes the root file system to be set up
+          an overlayfs mount combining the root-only root directory with a
+          writable tmpfs. In this setup, the underlying root device is not
+          modified, and any changes are lost at reboot.
+        * Similar, systemd-nspawn can now boot containers with a volatile
+          overlayfs root with the new --volatile=overlay switch.
+        * systemd-nspawn can now consume OCI runtime bundles using a new
+          --oci-bundle= option. This implementation is fully usable, with most
+          features in the specification implemented, but since this a lot of
+          new code and functionality, this feature should most likely not
+          be used in production yet.
+        * systemd-nspawn now supports various options described by the OCI
+          runtime specification on the command-line and in .nspawn files:
+          --inaccessible=/Inaccessible= may be used to mask parts of the file
+          system tree, --console=/--pipe may be used to configure how standard
+          input, output, and error are set up.
+        * busctl learned the `emit` verb to generate D-Bus signals.
+        * systemd-analyze cat-config may be used to gather and display
+          configuration spread over multiple files, for example system and user
+          presets, tmpfiles.d, sysusers.d, udev rules, etc.
+        * systemd-analyze calendar now takes an optional new parameter
+          --iterations= which may be used to show a maximum number of iterations
+          the specified expression will elapse next.
+        * The sd-bus C API gained support for naming method parameters in the
+          introspection data.
+        * systemd-logind gained D-Bus APIs to specify the "reboot parameter"
+          the reboot() system call expects.
+        * journalctl learnt a new --cursor-file= option that points to a file
+          from which a cursor should be loaded in the beginning and to which
+          the updated cursor should be stored at the end.
+        * ACRN hypervisor and Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) are now
+          detected by systemd-detect-virt (and may also be used in
+          ConditionVirtualization=).
+        * The behaviour of systemd-logind may now be modified with environment
+          $SYSTEMD_REBOOT_TO_BOOT_LOADER_ENTRY. They cause logind to either
+          skip the relevant operation completely (when set to false), or to
+          create a flag file in /run/systemd (when set to true), instead of
+          actually commencing the real operation when requested. The presence
+          of /run/systemd/reboot-to-firmware-setup,
+          /run/systemd/reboot-to-boot-loader-menu, and
+          /run/systemd/reboot-to-boot-loader-entry, may be used by alternative
+          boot loader implementations to replace some steps logind performs
+          during reboot with their own operations.
+        * systemctl can be used to request a reboot into the boot loader menu
+          or a specific boot loader entry with the new --boot-load-menu= and
+          --boot-loader-entry= options to a reboot command. (This requires a
+          boot loader that supports this, for example sd-boot.)
+        * kernel-install will no longer unconditionally create the output
+          directory (e.g. /efi/<machine-id>/<kernel-version>) for boot loader
+          snippets, but will do only if the machine-specific parent directory
+          (i.e. /efi/<machine-id>/) already exists. bootctl has been modified
+          to create this parent directory during sd-boot installation.
+          This makes it easier to use kernel-install with plugins which support
+          a different layout of the bootloader partitions (for example grub2).
+        * During package installation (with `ninja install`), we would create
+          symlinks for getty@tty1.service, systemd-networkd.service,
+          systemd-networkd.socket, systemd-resolved.service,
+          systemd-networkd-wait-online.service, and systemd-timesyncd.service
+          in /etc, as if `systemctl enable` was called for those units, to make
+          the system usable immediately after installation. Now this is not
+          done anymore, and instead calling `systemctl preset-all` is
+          recommended after the first installation of systemd.
+        * A new boolean sandboxing option RestrictSUIDSGID= has been added that
+          is built on seccomp. When turned on creation of SUID/SGID files is
+          prohibited.
+        * The NoNewPrivileges= and the new RestrictSUIDSGID= options are now
+          implied if DynamicUser= is turned on for a service. This hardens
+          these services, so that they neither can benefit from nor create
+          SUID/SGID executables. This is a minor compatibility breakage, given
+          that when DynamicUser= was first introduced SUID/SGID behaviour was
+          unaffected. However, the security benefit of these two options is
+          substantial, and the setting is still relatively new, hence we opted
+          to make it mandatory for services with dynamic users.
+        Contributions from: Adam Jackson, Alexander Tsoy, Andrey Yashkin,
+        Andrzej Pietrasiewicz, Anita Zhang, Balint Reczey, Beniamino Galvani,
+        Ben Iofel, Benjamin Berg, Benjamin Dahlhoff, Chris, Chris Morin,
+        Christopher Wong, Claudius Ellsel, Clemens Gruber, dana, Daniel Black,
+        Davide Cavalca, David Michael, David Rheinsberg, emersion, Evgeny
+        Vereshchagin, Filipe Brandenburger, Franck Bui, Frantisek Sumsal,
+        Giacinto Cifelli, Hans de Goede, Hugo Kindel, Ignat Korchagin, Insun
+        Pyo, Jan Engelhardt, Jonas Dorel, Jonathan Lebon, Jonathon Kowalski,
+        Jörg Sommer, Jörg Thalheim, Jussi Pakkanen, Kai-Heng Feng, Lennart
+        Poettering, Lubomir Rintel, Luís Ferreira, Martin Pitt, Matthias
+        Klumpp, Michael Biebl, Michael Niewöhner, Michael Olbrich, Michal
+        Sekletar, Mike Lothian, Paul Menzel, Piotr Drąg, Riccardo Schirone,
+        Robin Elvedi, Roman Kulikov, Ronald Tschalär, Ross Burton, Ryan
+        Gonzalez, Sebastian Krzyszkowiak, Stephane Chazelas, StKob, Susant
+        Sahani, Sylvain Plantefève, Szabolcs Fruhwald, Taro Yamada, Theo
+        Ouzhinski, Thomas Haller, Tobias Jungel, Tom Yan, Tony Asleson, Topi
+        Miettinen, unixsysadmin, Van Laser, Vesa Jääskeläinen, Yu, Li-Yu,
+        Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Warsaw, 2019-04-11
+        * The default locale can now be configured at compile time. Otherwise,
+          a suitable default will be selected automatically (one of C.UTF-8,
+          en_US.UTF-8, and C).
+        * The version string shown by systemd and other tools now includes the
+          git commit hash when built from git. An override may be specified
+          during compilation, which is intended to be used by distributions to
+          include the package release information.
+        * systemd-cat can now filter standard input and standard error streams
+          for different syslog priorities using the new --stderr-priority=
+          option.
+        * systemd-journald and systemd-journal-remote reject entries which
+          contain too many fields (CVE-2018-16865) and set limits on the
+          process' command line length (CVE-2018-16864).
+        * $DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS environment variable is set by pam_systemd
+          again.
+        * A new network device NamePolicy "keep" is implemented for link files,
+          and used by default in (the fallback configuration
+          provided by systemd). With this policy, if the network device name
+          was already set by userspace, the device will not be renamed again.
+          This matches the naming scheme that was implemented before
+          systemd-240. If naming-scheme < 240 is specified, the "keep" policy
+          is also enabled by default, even if not specified. Effectively, this
+          means that if naming-scheme >= 240 is specified, network devices will
+          be renamed according to the configuration, even if they have been
+          renamed already, if "keep" is not specified as the naming policy in
+          the .link file. The file provided by systemd includes
+          "keep" for backwards compatibility, but it is recommended for user
+          installed .link files to *not* include it.
+          The "kernel" policy, which keeps kernel names declared to be
+          "persistent", now works again as documented.
+        * kernel-install script now optionally takes the paths to one or more
+          initrd files, and passes them to all plugins.
+        * The mincore() system call has been dropped from the @system-service
+          system call filter group, as it is pretty exotic and may potentially
+          used for side-channel attacks.
+        * -fPIE is dropped from compiler and linker options. Please specify
+          -Db_pie=true option to meson to build position-independent
+          executables. Note that the meson option is supported since meson-0.49.
+        * The fs.protected_regular and fs.protected_fifos sysctls, which were
+          added in Linux 4.19 to make some data spoofing attacks harder, are
+          now enabled by default. While this will hopefully improve the
+          security of most installations, it is technically a backwards
+          incompatible change; to disable these sysctls again, place the
+          following lines in /etc/sysctl.d/60-protected.conf or a similar file:
+              fs.protected_regular = 0
+              fs.protected_fifos = 0
+          Note that the similar hardlink and symlink protection has been
+          enabled since v199, and may be disabled likewise.
+        * The files read from the EnvironmentFile= setting in unit files now
+          parse backslashes inside quotes literally, matching the behaviour of
+          POSIX shells.
+        * udevadm trigger, udevadm control, udevadm settle and udevadm monitor
+          now automatically become NOPs when run in a chroot() environment.
+        * The tmpfiles.d/ "C" line type will now copy directory trees not only
+          when the destination is so far missing, but also if it already exists
+          as a directory and is empty. This is useful to cater for systems
+          where directory trees are put together from multiple separate mount
+          points but otherwise empty.
+        * A new function sd_bus_close_unref() (and the associated
+          sd_bus_close_unrefp()) has been added to libsystemd, that combines
+          sd_bus_close() and sd_bus_unref() in one.
+        * udevadm control learnt a new option for --ping for testing whether a
+          systemd-udevd instance is running and reacting.
+        * udevadm trigger learnt a new option for --wait-daemon for waiting
+          systemd-udevd daemon to be initialized.
+        Contributions from: Aaron Plattner, Alberts Muktupāvels, Alex Mayer,
+        Ayman Bagabas, Beniamino Galvani, Burt P, Chris Down, Chris Lamb, Chris
+        Morin, Christian Hesse, Claudius Ellsel, dana, Daniel Axtens, Daniele
+        Medri, Dave Reisner, David Santamaría Rogado, Diego Canuhe, Dimitri
+        John Ledkov, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Fabrice Fontaine, Filipe
+        Brandenburger, Franck Bui, Frantisek Sumsal, govwin, Hans de Goede,
+        James Hilliard, Jan Engelhardt, Jani Uusitalo, Jan Janssen, Jan
+        Synacek, Jonathan McDowell, Jonathan Roemer, Jonathon Kowalski, Joost
+        Heitbrink, Jörg Thalheim, Lance, Lennart Poettering, Louis Taylor,
+        Lucas Werkmeister, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marc-Antoine Perennou,
+        marvelousblack, Michael Biebl, Michael Sloan, Michal Sekletar, Mike
+        Auty, Mike Gilbert, Mikhail Kasimov, Neil Brown, Niklas Hambüchen,
+        Patrick Williams, Paul Seyfert, Peter Hutterer, Philip Withnall, Roger
+        James, Ronnie P. Thomas, Ryan Gonzalez, Sam Morris, Stephan Edel,
+        Stephan Gerhold, Susant Sahani, Taro Yamada, Thomas Haller, Topi
+        Miettinen, YiFei Zhu, YmrDtnJu, YunQiang Su, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew
+        Jędrzejewski-Szmek, zsergeant77, Дамјан Георгиевски
+        — Berlin, 2019-02-14
+        * NoNewPrivileges=yes has been set for all long-running services
+          implemented by systemd. Previously, this was problematic due to
+          SELinux (as this would also prohibit the transition from PID1's label
+          to the service's label). This restriction has since been lifted, but
+          an SELinux policy update is required.
+          (See e.g.
+        * DynamicUser=yes is dropped from systemd-networkd.service,
+          systemd-resolved.service and systemd-timesyncd.service, which was
+          enabled in v239 for systemd-networkd.service and systemd-resolved.service,
+          and since v236 for systemd-timesyncd.service. The users and groups
+          systemd-network, systemd-resolve and systemd-timesync are created
+          by systemd-sysusers again. Distributors or system administrators
+          may need to create these users and groups if they not exist (or need
+          to re-enable DynamicUser= for those units) while upgrading systemd.
+          Also, the clock file for systemd-timesyncd may need to move from
+          /var/lib/private/systemd/timesync/clock to /var/lib/systemd/timesync/clock.
+        * When unit files are loaded from disk, previously systemd would
+          sometimes (depending on the unit loading order) load units from the
+          target path of symlinks in .wants/ or .requires/ directories of other
+          units. This meant that unit could be loaded from different paths
+          depending on whether the unit was requested explicitly or as a
+          dependency of another unit, not honouring the priority of directories
+          in search path. It also meant that it was possible to successfully
+          load and start units which are not found in the unit search path, as
+          long as they were requested as a dependency and linked to from
+          .wants/ or .requires/. The target paths of those symlinks are not
+          used for loading units anymore and the unit file must be found in
+          the search path.
+        * A new service type has been added: Type=exec. It's very similar to
+          Type=simple but ensures the service manager will wait for both fork()
+          and execve() of the main service binary to complete before proceeding
+          with follow-up units. This is primarily useful so that the manager
+          propagates any errors in the preparation phase of service execution
+          back to the job that requested the unit to be started. For example,
+          consider a service that has ExecStart= set to a file system binary
+          that doesn't exist. With Type=simple starting the unit would be
+          considered instantly successful, as only fork() has to complete
+          successfully and the manager does not wait for execve(), and hence
+          its failure is seen "too late". With the new Type=exec service type
+          starting the unit will fail, as the manager will wait for the
+          execve() and notice its failure, which is then propagated back to the
+          start job.
+          NOTE: with the next release 241 of systemd we intend to change the
+          systemd-run tool to default to Type=exec for transient services
+          started by it. This should be mostly safe, but in specific corner
+          cases might result in problems, as the systemd-run tool will then
+          block on NSS calls (such as user name look-ups due to User=) done
+          between the fork() and execve(), which under specific circumstances
+          might cause problems. It is recommended to specify "-p Type=simple"
+          explicitly in the few cases where this applies. For regular,
+          non-transient services (i.e. those defined with unit files on disk)
+          we will continue to default to Type=simple.
+        * The Linux kernel's current default RLIMIT_NOFILE resource limit for
+          userspace processes is set to 1024 (soft) and 4096
+          (hard). Previously, systemd passed this on unmodified to all
+          processes it forked off. With this systemd release the hard limit
+          systemd passes on is increased to 512K, overriding the kernel's
+          defaults and substantially increasing the number of simultaneous file
+          descriptors unprivileged userspace processes can allocate. Note that
+          the soft limit remains at 1024 for compatibility reasons: the
+          traditional UNIX select() call cannot deal with file descriptors >=
+          1024 and increasing the soft limit globally might thus result in
+          programs unexpectedly allocating a high file descriptor and thus
+          failing abnormally when attempting to use it with select() (of
+          course, programs shouldn't use select() anymore, and prefer
+          poll()/epoll, but the call unfortunately remains undeservedly popular
+          at this time). This change reflects the fact that file descriptor
+          handling in the Linux kernel has been optimized in more recent
+          kernels and allocating large numbers of them should be much cheaper
+          both in memory and in performance than it used to be. Programs that
+          want to take benefit of the increased limit have to "opt-in" into
+          high file descriptors explicitly by raising their soft limit. Of
+          course, when they do that they must acknowledge that they cannot use
+          select() anymore (and neither can any shared library they use — or
+          any shared library used by any shared library they use and so on).
+          Which default hard limit is most appropriate is of course hard to
+          decide. However, given reports that ~300K file descriptors are used
+          in real-life applications we believe 512K is sufficiently high as new
+          default for now. Note that there are also reports that using very
+          high hard limits (e.g. 1G) is problematic: some software allocates
+          large arrays with one element for each potential file descriptor
+          (Java, …) — a high hard limit thus triggers excessively large memory
+          allocations in these applications. Hopefully, the new default of 512K
+          is a good middle ground: higher than what real-life applications
+          currently need, and low enough for avoid triggering excessively large
+          allocations in problematic software. (And yes, somebody should fix
+          Java.)
+        * The fs.nr_open and fs.file-max sysctls are now automatically bumped
+          to the highest possible values, as separate accounting of file
+          descriptors is no longer necessary, as memcg tracks them correctly as
+          part of the memory accounting anyway. Thus, from the four limits on
+          file descriptors currently enforced (fs.file-max, fs.nr_open,
+          RLIMIT_NOFILE hard, RLIMIT_NOFILE soft) we turn off the first two,
+          and keep only the latter two. A set of build-time options
+          (-Dbump-proc-sys-fs-file-max=false and -Dbump-proc-sys-fs-nr-open=false)
+          has been added to revert this change in behaviour, which might be
+          an option for systems that turn off memcg in the kernel.
+        * When no /etc/locale.conf file exists (and hence no locale settings
+          are in place), systemd will now use the "C.UTF-8" locale by default,
+          and set LANG= to it. This locale is supported by various
+          distributions including Fedora, with clear indications that upstream
+          glibc is going to make it available too. This locale enables UTF-8
+          mode by default, which appears appropriate for 2018.
+        * The "net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter" sysctl will now be set to 2 by
+          default. This effectively switches the RFC3704 Reverse Path filtering
+          from Strict mode to Loose mode. This is more appropriate for hosts
+          that have multiple links with routes to the same networks (e.g.
+          a client with a Wi-Fi and Ethernet both connected to the internet).
+          Consult the kernel documentation for details on this sysctl:
+        * The v239 change to turn on "net.ipv4.tcp_ecn" by default has been
+          reverted.
+        * CPUAccounting=yes no longer enables the CPU controller when using
+          kernel 4.15+ and the unified cgroup hierarchy, as required accounting
+          statistics are now provided independently from the CPU controller.
+        * Support for disabling a particular cgroup controller within a sub-tree
+          has been added through the DisableControllers= directive.
+        * cgroup_no_v1=all on the kernel command line now also implies
+          using the unified cgroup hierarchy, unless one explicitly passes
+          systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy=0 on the kernel command line.
+        * The new "MemoryMin=" unit file property may now be used to set the
+          memory usage protection limit of processes invoked by the unit. This
+          controls the cgroup v2 memory.min attribute. Similarly, the new
+          "IODeviceLatencyTargetSec=" property has been added, wrapping the new
+          cgroup v2 io.latency cgroup property for configuring per-service I/O
+          latency.
+        * systemd now supports the cgroup v2 devices BPF logic, as counterpart
+          to the cgroup v1 "devices" cgroup controller.
+        * systemd-escape now is able to combine --unescape with --template. It
+          also learnt a new option --instance for extracting and unescaping the
+          instance part of a unit name.
+        * sd-bus now provides the sd_bus_message_readv() which is similar to
+          sd_bus_message_read() but takes a va_list object. The pair
+          sd_bus_set_method_call_timeout() and sd_bus_get_method_call_timeout()
+          has been added for configuring the default method call timeout to
+          use. sd_bus_error_move() may be used to efficiently move the contents
+          from one sd_bus_error structure to another, invalidating the
+          source. sd_bus_set_close_on_exit() and sd_bus_get_close_on_exit() may
+          be used to control whether a bus connection object is automatically
+          flushed when an sd-event loop is exited.
+        * When processing classic BSD syslog log messages, journald will now
+          save the original time-stamp string supplied in the new
+          SYSLOG_TIMESTAMP= journal field. This permits consumers to
+          reconstruct the original BSD syslog message more correctly.
+        * StandardOutput=/StandardError= in service files gained support for
+          new "append:…" parameters, for connecting STDOUT/STDERR of a service
+          to a file, and appending to it.
+        * The signal to use as last step of killing of unit processes is now
+          configurable. Previously it was hard-coded to SIGKILL, which may now
+          be overridden with the new KillSignal= setting. Note that this is the
+          signal used when regular termination (i.e. SIGTERM) does not suffice.
+          Similarly, the signal used when aborting a program in case of a
+          watchdog timeout may now be configured too (WatchdogSignal=).
+        * The XDG_SESSION_DESKTOP environment variable may now be configured in
+          the pam_systemd argument line, using the new desktop= switch. This is
+          useful to initialize it properly from a display manager without
+          having to touch C code.
+        * Most configuration options that previously accepted percentage values
+          now also accept permille values with the '‰' suffix (instead of '%').
+        * systemd-resolved may now optionally use OpenSSL instead of GnuTLS for
+          DNS-over-TLS.
+        * systemd-resolved's configuration file resolved.conf gained a new
+          option ReadEtcHosts= which may be used to turn off processing and
+          honoring /etc/hosts entries.
+        * The "--wait" switch may now be passed to "systemctl
+          is-system-running", in which case the tool will synchronously wait
+          until the system finished start-up.
+        * hostnamed gained a new bus call to determine the DMI product UUID.
+        * On x86-64 systemd will now prefer using the RDRAND processor
+          instruction over /dev/urandom whenever it requires randomness that
+          neither has to be crypto-grade nor should be reproducible. This
+          should substantially reduce the amount of entropy systemd requests
+          from the kernel during initialization on such systems, though not
+          reduce it to zero. (Why not zero? systemd still needs to allocate
+          UUIDs and such uniquely, which require high-quality randomness.)
+        * networkd gained support for Foo-Over-UDP, ERSPAN and ISATAP
+          tunnels. It also gained a new option ForceDHCPv6PDOtherInformation=
+          for forcing the "Other Information" bit in IPv6 RA messages. The
+          bonding logic gained four new options AdActorSystemPriority=,
+          AdUserPortKey=, AdActorSystem= for configuring various 802.3ad
+          aspects, and DynamicTransmitLoadBalancing= for enabling dynamic
+          shuffling of flows. The tunnel logic gained a new
+          IPv6RapidDeploymentPrefix= option for configuring IPv6 Rapid
+          Deployment. The policy rule logic gained four new options IPProtocol=,
+          SourcePort= and DestinationPort=, InvertRule=. The bridge logic gained
+          support for the MulticastToUnicast= option. networkd also gained
+          support for configuring static IPv4 ARP or IPv6 neighbor entries.
+        * .preset files (as read by 'systemctl preset') may now be used to
+          instantiate services.
+        * /etc/crypttab now understands the sector-size= option to configure
+          the sector size for an encrypted partition.
+        * Key material for encrypted disks may now be placed on a formatted
+          medium, and referenced from /etc/crypttab by the UUID of the file
+          system, followed by "=" suffixed by the path to the key file.
+        * The "collect" udev component has been removed without replacement, as
+          it is neither used nor maintained.
+        * When the RuntimeDirectory=, StateDirectory=, CacheDirectory=,
+          LogsDirectory=, ConfigurationDirectory= settings are used in a
+          service the executed processes will now receive a set of environment
+          variables containing the full paths of these directories.
+          LOGS_DIRECTORY, CONFIGURATION_DIRECTORY are now set if these options
+          are used. Note that these options may be used multiple times per
+          service in which case the resulting paths will be concatenated and
+          separated by colons.
+        * Predictable interface naming has been extended to cover InfiniBand
+          NICs. They will be exposed with an "ib" prefix.
+        * tmpfiles.d/ line types may now be suffixed with a '-' character, in
+          which case the respective line failing is ignored.
+        * .link files may now be used to configure the equivalent to the
+          "ethtool advertise" commands.
+        * The sd-device.h and sd-hwdb.h APIs are now exported, as an
+          alternative to libudev.h. Previously, the latter was just an internal
+          wrapper around the former, but now these two APIs are exposed
+          directly.
+        * sd-id128.h gained a new function sd_id128_get_boot_app_specific()
+          which calculates an app-specific boot ID similar to how
+          sd_id128_get_machine_app_specific() generates an app-specific machine
+          ID.
+        * A new tool systemd-id128 has been added that can be used to determine
+          and generate various 128bit IDs.
+        * /etc/os-release gained two new standardized fields DOCUMENTATION_URL=
+          and LOGO=.
+        * systemd-hibernate-resume-generator will now honor the "noresume"
+          kernel command line option, in which case it will bypass resuming
+          from any hibernated image.
+        * The systemd-sleep.conf configuration file gained new options
+          AllowSuspend=, AllowHibernation=, AllowSuspendThenHibernate=,
+          AllowHybridSleep= for prohibiting specific sleep modes even if the
+          kernel exports them.
+        * portablectl is now officially supported and has thus moved to
+          /usr/bin/.
+        * bootctl learnt the two new commands "set-default" and "set-oneshot"
+          for setting the default boot loader item to boot to (either
+          persistently or only for the next boot). This is currently only
+          compatible with sd-boot, but may be implemented on other boot loaders
+          too, that follow the boot loader interface. The updated interface is
+          now documented here:
+        * A new kernel command line option systemd.early_core_pattern= is now
+          understood which may be used to influence the core_pattern PID 1
+          installs during early boot.
+        * busctl learnt two new options -j and --json= for outputting method
+          call replies, properties and monitoring output in JSON.
+        * journalctl's JSON output now supports simple ANSI coloring as well as
+          a new "json-seq" mode for generating RFC7464 output.
+        * Unit files now support the %g/%G specifiers that resolve to the UNIX
+          group/GID of the service manager runs as, similar to the existing
+          %u/%U specifiers that resolve to the UNIX user/UID.
+        * systemd-logind learnt a new global configuration option
+          UserStopDelaySec= that may be set in logind.conf. It specifies how
+          long the systemd --user instance shall remain started after a user
+          logs out. This is useful to speed up repetitive re-connections of the
+          same user, as it means the user's service manager doesn't have to be
+          stopped/restarted on each iteration, but can be reused between
+          subsequent options. This setting defaults to 10s. systemd-logind also
+          exports two new properties on its Manager D-Bus objects indicating
+          whether the system's lid is currently closed, and whether the system
+          is on AC power.
+        * systemd gained support for a generic boot counting logic, which
+          generically permits automatic reverting to older boot loader entries
+          if newer updated ones don't work. The boot loader side is implemented
+          in sd-boot, but is kept open for other boot loaders too. For details
+          see:
+        * The SuccessAction=/FailureAction= unit file settings now learnt two
+          new parameters: "exit" and "exit-force", which result in immediate
+          exiting of the service manager, and are only useful in systemd --user
+          and container environments.
+        * Unit files gained support for a pair of options
+          FailureActionExitStatus=/SuccessActionExitStatus= for configuring the
+          exit status to use as service manager exit status when
+          SuccessAction=/FailureAction= is set to exit or exit-force.
+        * A pair of LogRateLimitIntervalSec=/LogRateLimitBurst= per-service
+          options may now be used to configure the log rate limiting applied by
+          journald per-service.
+        * systemd-analyze gained a new verb "timespan" for parsing and
+          normalizing time span values (i.e. strings like "5min 7s 8us").
+        * systemd-analyze also gained a new verb "security" for analyzing the
+          security and sand-boxing settings of services in order to determine an
+          "exposure level" for them, indicating whether a service would benefit
+          from more sand-boxing options turned on for them.
+        * "systemd-analyze syscall-filter" will now also show system calls
+          supported by the local kernel but not included in any of the defined
+          groups.
+        * .nspawn files now understand the Ephemeral= setting, matching the
+          --ephemeral command line switch.
+        * sd-event gained the new APIs sd_event_source_get_floating() and
+          sd_event_source_set_floating() for controlling whether a specific
+          event source is "floating", i.e. destroyed along with the even loop
+          object itself.
+        * Unit objects on D-Bus gained a new "Refs" property that lists all
+          clients that currently have a reference on the unit (to ensure it is
+          not unloaded).
+        * The JoinControllers= option in system.conf is no longer supported, as
+          it didn't work correctly, is hard to support properly, is legacy (as
+          the concept only exists on cgroup v1) and apparently wasn't used.
+        * Journal messages that are generated whenever a unit enters the failed
+          state are now tagged with a unique MESSAGE_ID. Similarly, messages
+          generated whenever a service process exits are now made recognizable,
+          too. A tagged message is also emitted whenever a unit enters the
+          "dead" state on success.
+        * systemd-run gained a new switch --working-directory= for configuring
+          the working directory of the service to start. A shortcut -d is
+          equivalent, setting the working directory of the service to the
+          current working directory of the invoking program. The new --shell
+          (or just -S) option has been added for invoking the $SHELL of the
+          caller as a service, and implies --pty --same-dir --wait --collect
+          --service-type=exec. Or in other words, "systemd-run -S" is now the
+          quickest way to quickly get an interactive in a fully clean and
+          well-defined system service context.
+        * machinectl gained a new verb "import-fs" for importing an OS tree
+          from a directory. Moreover, when a directory or tarball is imported
+          and single top-level directory found with the OS itself below the OS
+          tree is automatically mangled and moved one level up.
+        * systemd-importd will no longer set up an implicit btrfs loop-back
+          file system on /var/lib/machines. If one is already set up, it will
+          continue to be used.
+        * A new generator "systemd-run-generator" has been added. It will
+          synthesize a unit from one or more program command lines included in
+          the kernel command line. This is very useful in container managers
+          for example:
+          # systemd-nspawn -i someimage.raw -b'"some command line"'
+          This will run "systemd-nspawn" on an image, invoke the specified
+          command line and immediately shut down the container again, returning
+          the command line's exit code.
+        * The block device locking logic is now documented:
+        * loginctl and machinectl now optionally output the various tables in
+          JSON using the --output= switch. It is our intention to add similar
+          support to systemctl and all other commands.
+        * udevadm's query and trigger verb now optionally take a .device unit
+          name as argument.
+        * systemd-udevd's network naming logic now understands a new
+          net.naming-scheme= kernel command line switch, which may be used to
+          pick a specific version of the naming scheme. This helps stabilizing
+          interface names even as systemd/udev are updated and the naming logic
+          is improved.
+        * sd-id128.h learnt two new auxiliary helpers: sd_id128_is_allf() and
+          SD_ID128_ALLF to test if a 128bit ID is set to all 0xFF bytes, and to
+          initialize one to all 0xFF.
+        * After loading the SELinux policy systemd will now recursively relabel
+          all files and directories listed in
+          /run/systemd/relabel-extra.d/*.relabel (which should be simple
+          newline separated lists of paths) in addition to the ones it already
+          implicitly relabels in /run, /dev and /sys. After the relabelling is
+          completed the *.relabel files (and /run/systemd/relabel-extra.d/) are
+          removed. This is useful to permit initrds (i.e. code running before
+          the SELinux policy is in effect) to generate files in the host
+          filesystem safely and ensure that the correct label is applied during
+          the transition to the host OS.
+        * KERNEL API BREAKAGE: Linux kernel 4.18 changed behaviour regarding
+          mknod() handling in user namespaces. Previously mknod() would always
+          fail with EPERM in user namespaces. Since 4.18 mknod() will succeed
+          but device nodes generated that way cannot be opened, and attempts to
+          open them result in EPERM. This breaks the "graceful fallback" logic
+          in systemd's PrivateDevices= sand-boxing option. This option is
+          implemented defensively, so that when systemd detects it runs in a
+          restricted environment (such as a user namespace, or an environment
+          where mknod() is blocked through seccomp or absence of CAP_SYS_MKNOD)
+          where device nodes cannot be created the effect of PrivateDevices= is
+          bypassed (following the logic that 2nd-level sand-boxing is not
+          essential if the system systemd runs in is itself already sand-boxed
+          as a whole). This logic breaks with 4.18 in container managers where
+          user namespacing is used: suddenly PrivateDevices= succeeds setting
+          up a private /dev/ file system containing devices nodes — but when
+          these are opened they don't work.
+          At this point it is recommended that container managers utilizing
+          user namespaces that intend to run systemd in the payload explicitly
+          block mknod() with seccomp or similar, so that the graceful fallback
+          logic works again.
+          We are very sorry for the breakage and the requirement to change
+          container configurations for newer kernels. It's purely caused by an
+          incompatible kernel change. The relevant kernel developers have been
+          notified about this userspace breakage quickly, but they chose to
+          ignore it.
+        * PermissionsStartOnly= setting is deprecated (but is still supported
+          for backwards compatibility). The same functionality is provided by
+          the more flexible "+", "!", and "!!" prefixes to ExecStart= and other
+          commands.
+        * $DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS environment variable is not set by
+          pam_systemd anymore.
+        * The naming scheme for network devices was changed to always rename
+          devices, even if they were already renamed by userspace. The "kernel"
+          policy was changed to only apply as a fallback, if no other naming
+          policy took effect.
+        * The requirements to build systemd is bumped to meson-0.46 and
+          python-3.5.
+        Contributions from: afg, Alan Jenkins, Aleksei Timofeyev, Alexander
+        Filippov, Alexander Kurtz, Alexey Bogdanenko, Andreas Henriksson,
+        Andrew Jorgensen, Anita Zhang, apnix-uk, Arkan49, Arseny Maslennikov,
+        asavah, Asbjørn Apeland, aszlig, Bastien Nocera, Ben Boeckel, Benedikt
+        Morbach, Benjamin Berg, Bruce Zhang, Carlo Caione, Cedric Viou, Chen
+        Qi, Chris Chiu, Chris Down, Chris Morin, Christian Rebischke, Claudius
+        Ellsel, Colin Guthrie, dana, Daniel, Daniele Medri, Daniel Kahn
+        Gillmor, Daniel Rusek, Daniel van Vugt, Dariusz Gadomski, Dave Reisner,
+        David Anderson, Davide Cavalca, David Leeds, David Malcolm, David
+        Strauss, David Tardon, Dimitri John Ledkov, Dmitry Torokhov, dj-kaktus,
+        Dongsu Park, Elias Probst, Emil Soleyman, Erik Kooistra, Ervin Peters,
+        Evgeni Golov, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Fabrice Fontaine, Faheel Ahmad,
+        Faizal Luthfi, Felix Yan, Filipe Brandenburger, Franck Bui, Frank
+        Schaefer, Frantisek Sumsal, Gautier Husson, Gianluca Boiano, Giuseppe
+        Scrivano, glitsj16, Hans de Goede, Harald Hoyer, Harry Mallon, Harshit
+        Jain, Helmut Grohne, Henry Tung, Hui Yiqun, imayoda, Insun Pyo, Iwan
+        Timmer, Jan Janssen, Jan Pokorný, Jan Synacek, Jason A. Donenfeld,
+        javitoom, Jérémy Nouhaud, Jeremy Su, Jiuyang Liu, João Paulo Rechi
+        Vita, Joe Hershberger, Joe Rayhawk, Joerg Behrmann, Joerg Steffens,
+        Jonas Dorel, Jon Ringle, Josh Soref, Julian Andres Klode, Jun Bo Bi,
+        Jürg Billeter, Keith Busch, Khem Raj, Kirill Marinushkin, Larry
+        Bernstone, Lennart Poettering, Lion Yang, Li Song, Lorenz
+        Hübschle-Schneider, Lubomir Rintel, Lucas Werkmeister, Ludwin Janvier,
+        Lukáš Nykrýn, Luke Shumaker, mal, Marc-Antoine Perennou, Marcin
+        Skarbek, Marco Trevisan (Treviño), Marian Cepok, Mario Hros, Marko
+        Myllynen, Markus Grimm, Martin Pitt, Martin Sobotka, Martin Wilck,
+        Mathieu Trudel-Lapierre, Matthew Leeds, Michael Biebl, Michael Olbrich,
+        Michael 'pbone' Pobega, Michael Scherer, Michal Koutný, Michal
+        Sekletar, Michal Soltys, Mike Gilbert, Mike Palmer, Muhammet Kara, Neal
+        Gompa, Neil Brown, Network Silence, Niklas Tibbling, Nikolas Nyby,
+        Nogisaka Sadata, Oliver Smith, Patrik Flykt, Pavel Hrdina, Paweł
+        Szewczyk, Peter Hutterer, Piotr Drąg, Ray Strode, Reinhold Mueller,
+        Renaud Métrich, Roman Gushchin, Ronny Chevalier, Rubén Suárez Alvarez,
+        Ruixin Bao, RussianNeuroMancer, Ryutaroh Matsumoto, Saleem Rashid, Sam
+        Morris, Samuel Morris, Sandy Carter, scootergrisen, Sébastien Bacher,
+        Sergey Ptashnick, Shawn Landden, Shengyao Xue, Shih-Yuan Lee
+        (FourDollars), Silvio Knizek, Sjoerd Simons, Stasiek Michalski, Stephen
+        Gallagher, Steven Allen, Steve Ramage, Susant Sahani, Sven Joachim,
+        Sylvain Plantefève, Tanu Kaskinen, Tejun Heo, Thiago Macieira, Thomas
+        Blume, Thomas Haller, Thomas H. P. Andersen, Tim Ruffing, TJ, Tobias
+        Jungel, Todd Walton, Tommi Rantala, Tomsod M, Tony Novak, Tore
+        Anderson, Trevonn, Victor Laskurain, Victor Tapia, Violet Halo, Vojtech
+        Trefny, welaq, William A. Kennington III, William Douglas, Wyatt Ward,
+        Xiang Fan, Xi Ruoyao, Xuanwo, Yann E. Morin, YmrDtnJu, Yu Watanabe,
+        Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Zhang Xianwei, Zsolt Dollenstein
+        — Warsaw, 2018-12-21
+        * NETWORK INTERFACE DEVICE NAMING CHANGES: systemd-udevd's "net_id"
+          builtin will name network interfaces differently than in previous
+          versions for virtual network interfaces created with SR-IOV and NPAR
+          and for devices where the PCI network controller device does not have
+          a slot number associated.
+          SR-IOV virtual devices are now named based on the name of the parent
+          interface, with a suffix of "v<N>", where <N> is the virtual device
+          number. Previously those virtual devices were named as if completely
+          independent.
+          The ninth and later NPAR virtual devices will be named following the
+          scheme used for the first eight NPAR partitions. Previously those
+          devices were not renamed and the kernel default (eth<n>) was used.
+          "net_id" will also generate names for PCI devices where the PCI
+          network controller device does not have an associated slot number
+          itself, but one of its parents does. Previously those devices were
+          not renamed and the kernel default (eth<n>) was used.
+        * AF_INET and AF_INET6 are dropped from RestrictAddressFamilies= in
+          systemd-logind.service. Since v235, IPAddressDeny=any has been set to
+          the unit. So, it is expected that the default behavior of
+          systemd-logind is not changed. However, if distribution packagers or
+          administrators disabled or modified IPAddressDeny= setting by a
+          drop-in config file, then it may be necessary to update the file to
+          re-enable AF_INET and AF_INET6 to support network user name services,
+          e.g. NIS.
+        * When the RestrictNamespaces= unit property is specified multiple
+          times, then the specified types are merged now. Previously, only the
+          last assignment was used. So, if distribution packagers or
+          administrators modified the setting by a drop-in config file, then it
+          may be necessary to update the file.
+        * When OnFailure= is used in combination with Restart= on a service
+          unit, then the specified units will no longer be triggered on
+          failures that result in restarting. Previously, the specified units
+          would be activated each time the unit failed, even when the unit was
+          going to be restarted automatically. This behaviour contradicted the
+          documentation. With this release the code is adjusted to match the
+          documentation.
+        * systemd-tmpfiles will now print a notice whenever it encounters
+          tmpfiles.d/ lines referencing the /var/run/ directory. It will
+          recommend reworking them to use the /run/ directory instead (for
+          which /var/run/ is simply a symlinked compatibility alias). This way
+          systemd-tmpfiles can properly detect line conflicts and merge lines
+          referencing the same file by two paths, without having to access
+          them.
+        * systemctl disable/unmask/preset/preset-all cannot be used with
+          --runtime. Previously this was allowed, but resulted in unintuitive
+          behaviour that wasn't useful. systemctl disable/unmask will now undo
+          both runtime and persistent enablement/masking, i.e. it will remove
+          any relevant symlinks both in /run and /etc.
+        * Note that all long-running system services shipped with systemd will
+          now default to a system call allow list (rather than a deny list, as
+          before). In particular, systemd-udevd will now enforce one too. For
+          most cases this should be safe, however downstream distributions
+          which disabled sandboxing of systemd-udevd (specifically the
+          MountFlags= setting), might want to disable this security feature
+          too, as the default allow-listing will prohibit all mount, swap,
+          reboot and clock changing operations from udev rules.
+        * sd-boot acquired new loader configuration settings to optionally turn
+          off Windows and MacOS boot partition discovery as well as
+          reboot-into-firmware menu items. It is also able to pick a better
+          screen resolution for HiDPI systems, and now provides loader
+          configuration settings to change the resolution explicitly.
+        * systemd-resolved now supports DNS-over-TLS. It's still
+          turned off by default, use DNSOverTLS=opportunistic to turn it on in
+          resolved.conf. We intend to make this the default as soon as couple
+          of additional techniques for optimizing the initial latency caused by
+          establishing a TLS/TCP connection are implemented.
+        * systemd-resolved.service and systemd-networkd.service now set
+          DynamicUser=yes. The users systemd-resolve and systemd-network are
+          not created by systemd-sysusers anymore.
+          NOTE: This has a chance of breaking nss-ldap and similar NSS modules
+          that embed a network facing module into any process using getpwuid()
+          or related call: the dynamic allocation of the user ID for
+          systemd-resolved.service means the service manager has to check NSS
+          if the user name is already taken when forking off the service. Since
+          the user in the common case won't be defined in /etc/passwd the
+          lookup is likely to trigger nss-ldap which in turn might use NSS to
+          ask systemd-resolved for hostname lookups. This will hence result in
+          a deadlock: a user name lookup in order to start
+          systemd-resolved.service will result in a hostname lookup for which
+          systemd-resolved.service needs to be started already. There are
+          multiple ways to work around this problem: pre-allocate the
+          "systemd-resolve" user on such systems, so that nss-ldap won't be
+          triggered; or use a different NSS package that doesn't do networking
+          in-process but provides a local asynchronous name cache; or configure
+          the NSS package to avoid lookups for UIDs in the range `pkg-config
+          systemd --variable=dynamicuidmin` … `pkg-config systemd
+          --variable=dynamicuidmax`, so that it does not consider itself
+          authoritative for the same UID range systemd allocates dynamic users
+          from.
+        * The systemd-resolve tool has been renamed to resolvectl (it also
+          remains available under the old name, for compatibility), and its
+          interface is now verb-based, similar in style to the other <xyz>ctl
+          tools, such as systemctl or loginctl.
+        * The resolvectl/systemd-resolve tool also provides 'resolvconf'
+          compatibility. It may be symlinked under the 'resolvconf' name, in
+          which case it will take arguments and input compatible with the
+          Debian and FreeBSD resolvconf tool.
+        * Support for suspend-then-hibernate has been added, i.e. a sleep mode
+          where the system initially suspends, and after a timeout resumes and
+          hibernates again.
+        * networkd's ClientIdentifier= now accepts a new option "duid-only". If
+          set the client will only send a DUID as client identifier.
+        * The nss-systemd glibc NSS module will now enumerate dynamic users and
+          groups in effect. Previously, it could resolve UIDs/GIDs to user
+          names/groups and vice versa, but did not support enumeration.
+        * journald's Compress= configuration setting now optionally accepts a
+          byte threshold value. All journal objects larger than this threshold
+          will be compressed, smaller ones will not. Previously this threshold
+          was not configurable and set to 512.
+        * A new system.conf setting NoNewPrivileges= is now available which may
+          be used to turn off acquisition of new privileges system-wide
+          (i.e. set Linux' PR_SET_NO_NEW_PRIVS for PID 1 itself, and thus also
+          for all its children). Note that turning this option on means setuid
+          binaries and file system capabilities lose their special powers.
+          While turning on this option is a big step towards a more secure
+          system, doing so is likely to break numerous pre-existing UNIX tools,
+          in particular su and sudo.
+        * A new service systemd-time-sync-wait.service has been added. If
+          enabled it will delay the unit at boot until time
+          synchronization has been received from the network. This
+          functionality is useful on systems lacking a local RTC or where it is
+          acceptable that the boot process shall be delayed by external network
+          services.
+        * When hibernating, systemd will now inform the kernel of the image
+          write offset, on kernels new enough to support this. This means swap
+          files should work for hibernation now.
+        * When loading unit files, systemd will now look for drop-in unit files
+          extensions in additional places. Previously, for a unit file name
+          "foo-bar-baz.service" it would look for dropin files in
+          "foo-bar-baz.service.d/*.conf". Now, it will also look in
+          "foo-bar-.service.d/*.conf" and "foo-.service.d/", i.e. at the
+          service name truncated after all inner dashes. This scheme allows
+          writing drop-ins easily that apply to a whole set of unit files at
+          once. It's particularly useful for mount and slice units (as their
+          naming is prefix based), but is also useful for service and other
+          units, for packages that install multiple unit files at once,
+          following a strict naming regime of beginning the unit file name with
+          the package's name. Two new specifiers are now supported in unit
+          files to match this: %j and %J are replaced by the part of the unit
+          name following the last dash.
+        * Unit files and other configuration files that support specifier
+          expansion now understand another three new specifiers: %T and %V will
+          resolve to /tmp and /var/tmp respectively, or whatever temporary
+          directory has been set for the calling user. %E will expand to either
+          /etc (for system units) or $XDG_CONFIG_HOME (for user units).
+        * The ExecStart= lines of unit files are no longer required to
+          reference absolute paths. If non-absolute paths are specified the
+          specified binary name is searched within the service manager's
+          built-in $PATH, which may be queried with 'systemd-path
+          search-binaries-default'. It's generally recommended to continue to
+          use absolute paths for all binaries specified in unit files.
+        * Units gained a new load state "bad-setting", which is used when a
+          unit file was loaded, but contained fatal errors which prevent it
+          from being started (for example, a service unit has been defined
+          lacking both ExecStart= and ExecStop= lines).
+        * coredumpctl's "gdb" verb has been renamed to "debug", in order to
+          support alternative debuggers, for example lldb. The old name
+          continues to be available however, for compatibility reasons. Use the
+          new --debugger= switch or the $SYSTEMD_DEBUGGER environment variable
+          to pick an alternative debugger instead of the default gdb.
+        * systemctl and the other tools will now output escape sequences that
+          generate proper clickable hyperlinks in various terminal emulators
+          where useful (for example, in the "systemctl status" output you can
+          now click on the unit file name to quickly open it in the
+          editor/viewer of your choice). Note that not all terminal emulators
+          support this functionality yet, but many do. Unfortunately, the
+          "less" pager doesn't support this yet, hence this functionality is
+          currently automatically turned off when a pager is started (which
+          happens quite often due to auto-paging). We hope to remove this
+          limitation as soon as "less" learns these escape sequences. This new
+          behaviour may also be turned off explicitly with the $SYSTEMD_URLIFY
+          environment variable. For details on these escape sequences see:
+        * networkd's .network files now support a new IPv6MTUBytes= option for
+          setting the MTU used by IPv6 explicitly as well as a new MTUBytes=
+          option in the [Route] section to configure the MTU to use for
+          specific routes. It also gained support for configuration of the DHCP
+          "UserClass" option through the new UserClass= setting. It gained
+          three new options in the new [CAN] section for configuring CAN
+          networks. The MULTICAST and ALLMULTI interface flags may now be
+          controlled explicitly with the new Multicast= and AllMulticast=
+          settings.
+        * networkd will now automatically make use of the kernel's route
+          expiration feature, if it is available.
+        * udevd's .link files now support setting the number of receive and
+          transmit channels, using the RxChannels=, TxChannels=,
+          OtherChannels=, CombinedChannels= settings.
+        * Support for UDPSegmentationOffload= has been removed, given its
+          limited support in hardware, and waning software support.
+        * networkd's .netdev files now support creating "netdevsim" interfaces.
+        * PID 1 learnt a new bus call GetUnitByControlGroup() which may be used
+          to query the unit belonging to a specific kernel control group.
+        * systemd-analyze gained a new verb "cat-config", which may be used to
+          dump the contents of any configuration file, with all its matching
+          drop-in files added in, and honouring the usual search and masking
+          logic applied to systemd configuration files. For example use
+          "systemd-analyze cat-config systemd/system.conf" to get the complete
+          system configuration file of systemd how it would be loaded by PID 1
+          itself. Similar to this, various tools such as systemd-tmpfiles or
+          systemd-sysusers, gained a new option "--cat-config", which does the
+          corresponding operation for their own configuration settings. For
+          example, "systemd-tmpfiles --cat-config" will now output the full
+          list of tmpfiles.d/ lines in place.
+        * timedatectl gained three new verbs: "show" shows bus properties of
+          systemd-timedated, "timesync-status" shows the current NTP
+          synchronization state of systemd-timesyncd, and "show-timesync"
+          shows bus properties of systemd-timesyncd.
+        * systemd-timesyncd gained a bus interface on which it exposes details
+          about its state.
+        * A new environment variable $SYSTEMD_TIMEDATED_NTP_SERVICES is now
+          understood by systemd-timedated. It takes a colon-separated list of
+          unit names of NTP client services. The list is used by
+          "timedatectl set-ntp".
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --rlimit= switch for setting initial
+          resource limits for the container payload. There's a new switch
+          --hostname= to explicitly override the container's hostname. A new
+          --no-new-privileges= switch may be used to control the
+          PR_SET_NO_NEW_PRIVS flag for the container payload. A new
+          --oom-score-adjust= switch controls the OOM scoring adjustment value
+          for the payload. The new --cpu-affinity= switch controls the CPU
+          affinity of the container payload. The new --resolv-conf= switch
+          allows more detailed control of /etc/resolv.conf handling of the
+          container. Similarly, the new --timezone= switch allows more detailed
+          control of /etc/localtime handling of the container.
+        * systemd-detect-virt gained a new --list switch, which will print a
+          list of all currently known VM and container environments.
+        * Support for "Portable Services" has been added, see
+          doc/ for details. Currently, the support is still
+          experimental, but this is expected to change soon. Reflecting this
+          experimental state, the "portablectl" binary is not installed into
+          /usr/bin yet. The binary has to be called with the full path
+          /usr/lib/systemd/portablectl instead.
+        * journalctl's and systemctl's -o switch now knows a new log output
+          mode "with-unit". The output it generates is very similar to the
+          regular "short" mode, but displays the unit name instead of the
+          syslog tag for each log line. Also, the date is shown with timezone
+          information. This mode is probably more useful than the classic
+          "short" output mode for most purposes, except where pixel-perfect
+          compatibility with classic /var/log/messages formatting is required.
+        * A new --dump-bus-properties switch has been added to the systemd
+          binary, which may be used to dump all supported D-Bus properties.
+          (Options which are still supported, but are deprecated, are *not*
+          shown.)
+        * sd-bus gained a set of new calls:
+          sd_bus_slot_set_floating()/sd_bus_slot_get_floating() may be used to
+          enable/disable the "floating" state of a bus slot object,
+          i.e. whether the slot object pins the bus it is allocated for into
+          memory or if the bus slot object gets disconnected when the bus goes
+          away. sd_bus_open_with_description(),
+          sd_bus_open_user_with_description(),
+          sd_bus_open_system_with_description() may be used to allocate bus
+          objects and set their description string already during allocation.
+        * sd-event gained support for watching inotify events from the event
+          loop, in an efficient way, sharing inotify handles between multiple
+          users. For this a new function sd_event_add_inotify() has been added.
+        * sd-event and sd-bus gained support for calling special user-supplied
+          destructor functions for userdata pointers associated with
+          sd_event_source, sd_bus_slot, and sd_bus_track objects. For this new
+          functions sd_bus_slot_set_destroy_callback,
+          sd_bus_slot_get_destroy_callback, sd_bus_track_set_destroy_callback,
+          sd_bus_track_get_destroy_callback,
+          sd_event_source_set_destroy_callback,
+          sd_event_source_get_destroy_callback have been added.
+        * The "net.ipv4.tcp_ecn" sysctl will now be turned on by default.
+        * PID 1 will now automatically reschedule .timer units whenever the
+          local timezone changes. (They previously got rescheduled
+          automatically when the system clock changed.)
+        * New documentation has been added to document cgroups delegation,
+          portable services and the various code quality tools we have set up:
+        * The Boot Loader Specification has been added to the source tree.
+          While moving it into our source tree we have updated it and further
+          changes are now accepted through the usual github PR workflow.
+        * pam_systemd will now look for PAM userdata fields systemd.memory_max,
+          systemd.tasks_max, systemd.cpu_weight, systemd.io_weight set by
+          earlier PAM modules. The data in these fields is used to initialize
+          the session scope's resource properties. Thus external PAM modules
+          may now configure per-session limits, for example sourced from
+          external user databases.
+        * socket units with Accept=yes will now maintain a "refused" counter in
+          addition to the existing "accepted" counter, counting connections
+          refused due to the enforced limits.
+        * The "systemd-path search-binaries-default" command may now be use to
+          query the default, built-in $PATH PID 1 will pass to the services it
+          manages.
+        * A new unit file setting PrivateMounts= has been added. It's a boolean
+          option. If enabled the unit's processes are invoked in their own file
+          system namespace. Note that this behaviour is also implied if any
+          other file system namespacing options (such as PrivateTmp=,
+          PrivateDevices=, ProtectSystem=, …) are used. This option is hence
+          primarily useful for services that do not use any of the other file
+          system namespacing options. One such service is systemd-udevd.service
+          where this is now used by default.
+        * ConditionSecurity= gained a new value "uefi-secureboot" that is true
+          when the system is booted in UEFI "secure mode".
+        * A new unit "" is added, which defines an
+          optional synchronization point for offline system updates, as
+          implemented by the pre-existing "" unit. It
+          allows ordering services before the service that executes the actual
+          update process in a generic way.
+        * Systemd now emits warnings whenever .include syntax is used.
+        Contributions from: Adam Duskett, Alan Jenkins, Alessandro Casale,
+        Alexander Kurtz, Alex Gartrell, Anssi Hannula, Arnaud Rebillout, Brian
+        J. Murrell, Bruno Vernay, Chris Lamb, Chris Lesiak, Christian Brauner,
+        Christian Hesse, Christian Rebischke, Colin Guthrie, Daniel Dao, Daniel
+        Lin, Danylo Korostil, Davide Cavalca, David Tardon, Dimitri John
+        Ledkov, Dmitriy Geels, Douglas Christman, Elia Geretto, emelenas, Emil
+        Velikov, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Felipe Sateler, Feng Sun, Filipe
+        Brandenburger, Franck Bui, futpib, Giuseppe Scrivano, Guillem Jover,
+        guixxx, Hannes Reinecke, Hans de Goede, Harald Hoyer, Henrique Dante de
+        Almeida, Hiram van Paassen, Ian Miell, Igor Gnatenko, Ivan Shapovalov,
+        Iwan Timmer, James Cowgill, Jan Janssen, Jan Synacek, Jared Kazimir,
+        Jérémy Rosen, João Paulo Rechi Vita, Joost Heitbrink, Jui-Chi Ricky
+        Liang, Jürg Billeter, Kai-Heng Feng, Karol Augustin, Kay Sievers,
+        Krzysztof Nowicki, Lauri Tirkkonen, Lennart Poettering, Leonard König,
+        Long Li, Luca Boccassi, Lucas Werkmeister, Marcel Hoppe, Marc
+        Kleine-Budde, Mario Limonciello, Martin Jansa, Martin Wilck, Mathieu
+        Malaterre, Matteo F. Vescovi, Matthew McGinn, Matthias-Christian Ott,
+        Michael Biebl, Michael Olbrich, Michael Prokop, Michal Koutný, Michal
+        Sekletar, Mike Gilbert, Mikhail Kasimov, Milan Broz, Milan Pässler,
+        Mladen Pejaković, Muhammet Kara, Nicolas Boichat, Omer Katz, Paride
+        Legovini, Paul Menzel, Paul Milliken, Pavel Hrdina, Peter A. Bigot,
+        Peter D'Hoye, Peter Hutterer, Peter Jones, Philip Sequeira, Philip
+        Withnall, Piotr Drąg, Radostin Stoyanov, Ricardo Salveti de Araujo,
+        Ronny Chevalier, Rosen Penev, Rubén Suárez Alvarez, Ryan Gonzalez,
+        Salvo Tomaselli, Sebastian Reichel, Sergey Ptashnick, Sergio Lindo
+        Mansilla, Stefan Schweter, Stephen Hemminger, Stuart Hayes, Susant
+        Sahani, Sylvain Plantefève, Thomas H. P. Andersen, Tobias Jungel,
+        Tomasz Torcz, Vito Caputo, Will Dietz, Will Thompson, Wim van Mourik,
+        Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2018-06-22
+        * The MemoryAccounting= unit property now defaults to on. After
+          discussions with the upstream control group maintainers we learnt
+          that the negative impact of cgroup memory accounting on current
+          kernels is finally relatively minimal, so that it should be safe to
+          enable this by default without affecting system performance. Besides
+          memory accounting only task accounting is turned on by default, all
+          other forms of resource accounting (CPU, IO, IP) remain off for now,
+          because it's not clear yet that their impact is small enough to move
+          from opt-in to opt-out. We recommend downstreams to leave memory
+          accounting on by default if kernel 4.14 or higher is primarily
+          used. On very resource constrained systems or when support for old
+          kernels is a necessity, -Dmemory-accounting-default=false can be used
+          to revert this change.
+        * rpm scriptlets to update the udev hwdb and rules (%udev_hwdb_update,
+          %udev_rules_update) and the journal catalog (%journal_catalog_update)
+          from the upgrade scriptlets of individual packages now do nothing.
+          Transfiletriggers have been added which will perform those updates
+          once at the end of the transaction.
+          Similar transfiletriggers have been added to execute any sysctl.d
+          and binfmt.d rules. Thus, it should be unnecessary to provide any
+          scriptlets to execute this configuration from package installation
+          scripts.
+        * systemd-sysusers gained a mode where the configuration to execute is
+          specified on the command line, but this configuration is not executed
+          directly, but instead it is merged with the configuration on disk,
+          and the result is executed. This is useful for package installation
+          scripts which want to create the user before installing any files on
+          disk (in case some of those files are owned by that user), while
+          still allowing local admin overrides.
+          This functionality is exposed to rpm scriptlets through a new
+          %sysusers_create_package macro. Old %sysusers_create and
+          %sysusers_create_inline macros are deprecated.
+          A transfiletrigger for sysusers.d configuration is now installed,
+          which means that it should be unnecessary to call systemd-sysusers from
+          package installation scripts, unless the package installs any files
+          owned by those newly-created users, in which case
+          %sysusers_create_package should be used.
+        * Analogous change has been done for systemd-tmpfiles: it gained a mode
+          where the command-line configuration is merged with the configuration
+          on disk. This is exposed as the new %tmpfiles_create_package macro,
+          and %tmpfiles_create is deprecated. A transfiletrigger is installed
+          for tmpfiles.d, hence it should be unnecessary to call systemd-tmpfiles
+          from package installation scripts.
+        * sysusers.d configuration for a user may now also specify the group
+          number, in addition to the user number ("u username 123:456"), or
+          without the user number ("u username -:456").
+        * Configution items for systemd-sysusers can now be specified as
+          positional arguments when the new --inline switch is used.
+        * The login shell of users created through sysusers.d may now be
+          specified (previously, it was always /bin/sh for root and
+          /sbin/nologin for other users).
+        * systemd-analyze gained a new --global switch to look at global user
+          configuration. It also gained a unit-paths verb to list the unit load
+          paths that are compiled into systemd (which can be used with
+          --systemd, --user, or --global).
+        * udevadm trigger gained a new --settle/-w option to wait for any
+          triggered events to finish (but just those, and not any other events
+          which are triggered meanwhile).
+        * The action that systemd-logind takes when the lid is closed and the
+          machine is connected to external power can now be configured using
+          HandleLidSwitchExternalPower= in logind.conf. Previously, this action
+          was determined by HandleLidSwitch=, and, for backwards compatibility,
+          is still is, if HandleLidSwitchExternalPower= is not explicitly set.
+        * journalctl will periodically call sd_journal_process() to make it
+          resilient against inotify queue overruns when journal files are
+          rotated very quickly.
+        * Two new functions in libsystemd — sd_bus_get_n_queued_read and
+          sd_bus_get_n_queued_write — may be used to check the number of
+          pending bus messages.
+        * systemd gained a new
+          org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager.AttachProcessesToUnit dbus call
+          which can be used to migrate foreign processes to scope and service
+          units. The primary user for this new API is systemd itself: the
+          systemd --user instance uses this call of the systemd --system
+          instance to migrate processes if it itself gets the request to
+          migrate processes and the kernel refuses this due to access
+          restrictions.  Thanks to this "systemd-run --scope --user …" works
+          again in pure cgroup v2 environments when invoked from the user
+          session scope.
+        * A new TemporaryFileSystem= setting can be used to mask out part of
+          the real file system tree with tmpfs mounts. This may be combined
+          with BindPaths= and BindReadOnlyPaths= to hide files or directories
+          not relevant to the unit, while still allowing some paths lower in
+          the tree to be accessed.
+          ProtectHome=tmpfs may now be used to hide user home and runtime
+          directories from units, in a way that is mostly equivalent to
+          "TemporaryFileSystem=/home /run/user /root".
+        * Non-service units are now started with KeyringMode=shared by default.
+          This means that mount and swapon and other mount tools have access
+          to keys in the main keyring.
+        * /sys/fs/bpf is now mounted automatically.
+        * QNX virtualization is now detected by systemd-detect-virt and may
+          be used in ConditionVirtualization=.
+        * IPAccounting= may now be enabled also for slice units.
+        * A new -Dsplit-bin= build configuration switch may be used to specify
+          whether bin and sbin directories are merged, or if they should be
+          included separately in $PATH and various listings of executable
+          directories. The build configuration scripts will try to autodetect
+          the proper values of -Dsplit-usr= and -Dsplit-bin= based on build
+          system, but distributions are encouraged to configure this
+          explicitly.
+        * A new -Dok-color= build configuration switch may be used to change
+          the colour of "OK" status messages.
+        * UPGRADE ISSUE: serialization of units using JoinsNamespaceOf= with
+          PrivateNetwork=yes was buggy in previous versions of systemd. This
+          means that after the upgrade and daemon-reexec, any such units must
+          be restarted.
+        * INCOMPATIBILITY: as announced in the NEWS for 237, systemd-tmpfiles
+          will not exclude read-only files owned by root from cleanup.
+        Contributions from: Alan Jenkins, Alexander F Rødseth, Alexis Jeandet,
+        Andika Triwidada, Andrei Gherzan, Ansgar Burchardt, antizealot1337,
+        Batuhan Osman Taşkaya, Beniamino Galvani, Bill Yodlowsky, Caio Marcelo
+        de Oliveira Filho, CuBiC, Daniele Medri, Daniel Mouritzen, Daniel
+        Rusek, Davide Cavalca, Dimitri John Ledkov, Douglas Christman, Evgeny
+        Vereshchagin, Faalagorn, Filipe Brandenburger, Franck Bui, futpib,
+        Giacomo Longo, Gunnar Hjalmarsson, Hans de Goede, Hermann Gausterer,
+        Iago López Galeiras, Jakub Filak, Jan Synacek, Jason A. Donenfeld,
+        Javier Martinez Canillas, Jérémy Rosen, Lennart Poettering, Lucas
+        Werkmeister, Mao Huang, Marco Gulino, Michael Biebl, Michael Vogt,
+        MilhouseVH, Neal Gompa (ニール・ゴンパ), Oleander Reis, Olof Mogren,
+        Patrick Uiterwijk, Peter Hutterer, Peter Portante, Piotr Drąg, Robert
+        Antoni Buj Gelonch, Sergey Ptashnick, Shawn Landden, Shuang Liu, Simon
+        Fowler, SjonHortensius, snorreflorre, Susant Sahani, Sylvain
+        Plantefève, Thomas Blume, Thomas Haller, Vito Caputo, Yu Watanabe,
+        Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Марко М. Костић (Marko M. Kostić)
+        — Warsaw, 2018-03-05
+        * Some keyboards come with a zoom see-saw or rocker which until now got
+          mapped to the Linux "zoomin/out" keys in hwdb. However, these
+          keycodes are not recognized by any major desktop. They now produce
+          Up/Down key events so that they can be used for scrolling.
+        * INCOMPATIBILITY: systemd-tmpfiles' "f" lines changed behaviour
+          slightly: previously, if an argument was specified for lines of this
+          type (i.e. the right-most column was set) this string was appended to
+          existing files each time systemd-tmpfiles was run. This behaviour was
+          different from what the documentation said, and not particularly
+          useful, as repeated systemd-tmpfiles invocations would not be
+          idempotent and grow such files without bounds. With this release
+          behaviour has been altered to match what the documentation says:
+          lines of this type only have an effect if the indicated files don't
+          exist yet, and only then the argument string is written to the file.
+        * FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY: In systemd v238 we intend to slightly change
+          systemd-tmpfiles behaviour: previously, read-only files owned by root
+          were always excluded from the file "aging" algorithm (i.e. the
+          automatic clean-up of directories like /tmp based on
+          atime/mtime/ctime). We intend to drop this restriction, and age files
+          by default even when owned by root and read-only. This behaviour was
+          inherited from older tools, but there have been requests to remove
+          it, and it's not obvious why this restriction was made in the first
+          place. Please speak up now, if you are aware of software that requires
+          this behaviour, otherwise we'll remove the restriction in v238.
+        * A new environment variable $SYSTEMD_OFFLINE is now understood by
+          systemctl. It takes a boolean argument. If on, systemctl assumes it
+          operates on an "offline" OS tree, and will not attempt to talk to the
+          service manager. Previously, this mode was implicitly enabled if a
+          chroot() environment was detected, and this new environment variable
+          now provides explicit control.
+        * .path and .socket units may now be created transiently, too.
+          Previously only service, mount, automount and timer units were
+          supported as transient units. The systemd-run tool has been updated
+          to expose this new functionality, you may hence use it now to bind
+          arbitrary commands to path or socket activation on-the-fly from the
+          command line. Moreover, almost all properties are now exposed for the
+          unit types that already supported transient operation.
+        * The systemd-mount command gained support for a new --owner= parameter
+          which takes a user name, which is then resolved and included in uid=
+          and gid= mount options string of the file system to mount.
+        * A new unit condition ConditionControlGroupController= has been added
+          that checks whether a specific cgroup controller is available.
+        * Unit files, udev's .link files, and systemd-networkd's .netdev and
+          .network files all gained support for a new condition
+          ConditionKernelVersion= for checking against specific kernel
+          versions.
+        * In systemd-networkd, the [IPVLAN] section in .netdev files gained
+          support for configuring device flags in the Flags= setting. In the
+          same files, the [Tunnel] section gained support for configuring
+          AllowLocalRemote=.  The [Route] section in .network files gained
+          support for configuring InitialCongestionWindow=,
+          InitialAdvertisedReceiveWindow= and QuickAck=. The [DHCP] section now
+          understands RapidCommit=.
+        * systemd-networkd's DHCPv6 support gained support for Prefix
+          Delegation.
+        * sd-bus gained support for a new "watch-bind" feature. When this
+          feature is enabled, an sd_bus connection may be set up to connect to
+          an AF_UNIX socket in the file system as soon as it is created. This
+          functionality is useful for writing early-boot services that
+          automatically connect to the system bus as soon as it is started,
+          without ugly time-based polling. systemd-networkd and
+          systemd-resolved have been updated to make use of this
+          functionality. busctl exposes this functionality in a new
+          --watch-bind= command line switch.
+        * sd-bus will now optionally synthesize a local "Connected" signal as
+          soon as a D-Bus connection is set up fully. This message mirrors the
+          already existing "Disconnected" signal which is synthesized when the
+          connection is terminated. This signal is generally useful but
+          particularly handy in combination with the "watch-bind" feature
+          described above. Synthesizing of this message has to be requested
+          explicitly through the new API call sd_bus_set_connected_signal(). In
+          addition a new call sd_bus_is_ready() has been added that checks
+          whether a connection is fully set up (i.e. between the "Connected" and
+          "Disconnected" signals).
+        * sd-bus gained two new calls sd_bus_request_name_async() and
+          sd_bus_release_name_async() for asynchronously registering bus
+          names. Similar, there is now sd_bus_add_match_async() for installing
+          a signal match asynchronously. All of systemd's own services have
+          been updated to make use of these calls. Doing these operations
+          asynchronously has two benefits: it reduces the risk of deadlocks in
+          case of cyclic dependencies between bus services, and it speeds up
+          service initialization since synchronization points for bus
+          round-trips are removed.
+        * sd-bus gained two new calls sd_bus_match_signal() and
+          sd_bus_match_signal_async(), which are similar to sd_bus_add_match()
+          and sd_bus_add_match_async() but instead of taking a D-Bus match
+          string take match fields as normal function parameters.
+        * sd-bus gained two new calls sd_bus_set_sender() and
+          sd_bus_message_set_sender() for setting the sender name of outgoing
+          messages (either for all outgoing messages or for just one specific
+          one). These calls are only useful in direct connections as on
+          brokered connections the broker fills in the sender anyway,
+          overwriting whatever the client filled in.
+        * sd-event gained a new pseudo-handle that may be specified on all API
+          calls where an "sd_event*" object is expected: SD_EVENT_DEFAULT. When
+          used this refers to the default event loop object of the calling
+          thread. Note however that this does not implicitly allocate one —
+          which has to be done prior by using sd_event_default(). Similarly
+          sd-bus gained three new pseudo-handles SD_BUS_DEFAULT,
+          SD_BUS_DEFAULT_USER, SD_BUS_DEFAULT_SYSTEM that may be used to refer
+          to the default bus of the specified type of the calling thread. Here
+          too this does not implicitly allocate bus connection objects, this
+          has to be done prior with sd_bus_default() and friends.
+        * sd-event gained a new call pair
+          sd_event_source_{get|set}_io_fd_own(). This may be used to request
+          automatic closure of the file descriptor an IO event source watches
+          when the event source is destroyed.
+        * systemd-networkd gained support for natively configuring WireGuard
+          connections.
+        * In previous versions systemd synthesized user records both for the
+          "nobody" (UID 65534) and "root" (UID 0) users in nss-systemd and
+          internally. In order to simplify distribution-wide renames of the
+          "nobody" user (like it is planned in Fedora: nfsnobody → nobody), a
+          new transitional flag file has been added: if
+          /etc/systemd/dont-synthesize-nobody exists synthesizing of the 65534
+          user and group record within the systemd codebase is disabled.
+        * systemd-notify gained a new --uid= option for selecting the source
+          user/UID to use for notification messages sent to the service
+          manager.
+        * journalctl gained a new --grep= option to list only entries in which
+          the message matches a certain pattern. By default matching is case
+          insensitive if the pattern is lowercase, and case sensitive
+          otherwise. Option --case-sensitive=yes|no can be used to override
+          this an specify case sensitivity or case insensitivity.
+        * There's now a "systemd-analyze service-watchdogs" command for printing
+          the current state of the service runtime watchdog, and optionally
+          enabling or disabling the per-service watchdogs system-wide if given a
+          boolean argument (i.e. the concept you configure in WatchdogSec=), for
+          debugging purposes. There's also a kernel command line option
+          systemd.service_watchdogs= for controlling the same.
+        * Two new "log-level" and "log-target" options for systemd-analyze were
+          added that merge the now deprecated get-log-level, set-log-level and
+          get-log-target, set-log-target pairs. The deprecated options are still
+          understood for backwards compatibility. The two new options print the
+          current value when no arguments are given, and set them when a
+          level/target is given as an argument.
+        * sysusers.d's "u" lines now optionally accept both a UID and a GID
+          specification, separated by a ":" character, in order to create users
+          where UID and GID do not match.
+        Contributions from: Adam Duskett, Alan Jenkins, Alexander Kuleshov,
+        Alexis Deruelle, Andrew Jeddeloh, Armin Widegreen, Batuhan Osman
+        Taşkaya, Björn Esser, bleep_blop, Bruce A. Johnson, Chris Down, Clinton
+        Roy, Colin Walters, Daniel Rusek, Dimitri John Ledkov, Dmitry Rozhkov,
+        Evgeny Vereshchagin, Ewout van Mansom, Felipe Sateler, Franck Bui,
+        Frantisek Sumsal, George Gaydarov, Gianluca Boiano, Hans-Christian
+        Noren Egtvedt, Hans de Goede, Henrik Grindal Bakken, Jan Alexander
+        Steffens, Jan Klötzke, Jason A. Donenfeld, jdkbx, Jérémy Rosen,
+        Jerónimo Borque, John Lin, John Paul Herold, Jonathan Rudenberg, Jörg
+        Thalheim, Ken (Bitsko) MacLeod, Larry Bernstone, Lennart Poettering,
+        Lucas Werkmeister, Maciej S. Szmigiero, Marek Čermák, Martin Pitt,
+        Mathieu Malaterre, Matthew Thode, Matthias-Christian Ott, Max Harmathy,
+        Michael Biebl, Michael Vogt, Michal Koutný, Michal Sekletar, Michał
+        Szczepański, Mike Gilbert, Nathaniel McCallum, Nicolas Chauvet, Olaf
+        Hering, Olivier Schwander, Patrik Flykt, Paul Cercueil, Peter Hutterer,
+        Piotr Drąg, Raphael Vogelgsang, Reverend Homer, Robert Kolchmeyer,
+        Samuel Dionne-Riel, Sergey Ptashnick, Shawn Landden, Susant Sahani,
+        Sylvain Plantefève, Thomas H. P. Andersen, Thomas Huth, Tomasz
+        Bachorski, Vladislav Vishnyakov, Wieland Hoffmann, Yu Watanabe, Zachary
+        Winnerman, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Дамјан Георгиевски, Дилян
+        Палаузов
+        — Brno, 2018-01-28
+        * The modprobe.d/ drop-in for the bonding.ko kernel module introduced
+          in v235 has been extended to also set the dummy.ko module option
+          numdummies=0, preventing the kernel from automatically creating
+          dummy0. All dummy interfaces must now be explicitly created.
+        * Unknown '%' specifiers in configuration files are now rejected. This
+          applies to units and tmpfiles.d configuration. Any percent characters
+          that are followed by a letter or digit that are not supposed to be
+          interpreted as the beginning of a specifier should be escaped by
+          doubling ("%%").  (So "size=5%" is still accepted, as well as
+          "size=5%,foo=bar", but not "LABEL=x%y%z" since %y and %z are not
+          valid specifiers today.)
+        * systemd-resolved now maintains a new dynamic
+          /run/systemd/resolve/stub-resolv.conf compatibility file. It is
+          recommended to make /etc/resolv.conf a symlink to it. This file
+          points at the systemd-resolved stub DNS resolver and
+          includes dynamically acquired search domains, achieving more correct
+          DNS resolution by software that bypasses local DNS APIs such as NSS.
+        * The "uaccess" udev tag has been dropped from /dev/kvm and
+          /dev/dri/renderD*.  These devices now have the 0666 permissions by
+          default (but this may be changed at build-time). /dev/dri/renderD*
+          will now be owned by the "render" group along with /dev/kfd.
+        * "DynamicUser=yes" has been enabled for systemd-timesyncd.service,
+          systemd-journal-gatewayd.service and
+          systemd-journal-upload.service. This means "nss-systemd" must be
+          enabled in /etc/nsswitch.conf to ensure the UIDs assigned to these
+          services are resolved properly.
+        * In /etc/fstab two new mount options are now understood:
+          x-systemd.makefs and x-systemd.growfs. The former has the effect that
+          the configured file system is formatted before it is mounted, the
+          latter that the file system is resized to the full block device size
+          after it is mounted (i.e. if the file system is smaller than the
+          partition it resides on, it's grown). This is similar to the fsck
+          logic in /etc/fstab, and pulls in systemd-makefs@.service and
+          systemd-growfs@.service as necessary, similar to
+          systemd-fsck@.service. Resizing is currently only supported on ext4
+          and btrfs.
+        * In systemd-networkd, the IPv6 RA logic now optionally may announce
+          DNS server and domain information.
+        * Support for the LUKS2 on-disk format for encrypted partitions has
+          been added. This requires libcryptsetup2 during compilation and
+          runtime.
+        * The systemd --user instance will now signal "readiness" when its
+ unit has been reached, instead of when the run queue ran
+          empty for the first time.
+        * Tmpfiles.d with user configuration are now also supported.
+          systemd-tmpfiles gained a new --user switch, and snippets placed in
+          ~/.config/user-tmpfiles.d/ and corresponding directories will be
+          executed by systemd-tmpfiles --user running in the new
+          systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service and systemd-tmpfiles-clean.service
+          running in the user session.
+        * Unit files and tmpfiles.d snippets learnt three new % specifiers:
+          %S resolves to the top-level state directory (/var/lib for the system
+          instance, $XDG_CONFIG_HOME for the user instance), %C resolves to the
+          top-level cache directory (/var/cache for the system instance,
+          $XDG_CACHE_HOME for the user instance), %L resolves to the top-level
+          logs directory (/var/log for the system instance,
+          $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/log/ for the user instance). This matches the
+          existing %t specifier, that resolves to the top-level runtime
+          directory (/run for the system instance, and $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR for the
+          user instance).
+        * journalctl learnt a new parameter --output-fields= for limiting the
+          set of journal fields to output in verbose and JSON output modes.
+        * systemd-timesyncd's configuration file gained a new option
+          RootDistanceMaxSec= for setting the maximum root distance of servers
+          it'll use, as well as the new options PollIntervalMinSec= and
+          PollIntervalMaxSec= to tweak the minimum and maximum poll interval.
+        * bootctl gained a new command "list" for listing all available boot
+          menu items on systems that follow the boot loader specification.
+        * systemctl gained a new --dry-run switch that shows what would be done
+          instead of doing it, and is currently supported by the shutdown and
+          sleep verbs.
+        * ConditionSecurity= can now detect the TOMOYO security module.
+        * Unit file [Install] sections are now also respected in unit drop-in
+          files. This is intended to be used by drop-ins under /usr/lib/.
+        * systemd-firstboot may now also set the initial keyboard mapping.
+        * Udev "changed" events for devices which are exposed as systemd
+          .device units are now propagated to units specified in
+          ReloadPropagatedFrom= as reload requests.
+        * If a udev device has a SYSTEMD_WANTS= property containing a systemd
+          unit template name (i.e. a name in the form of 'foobar@.service',
+          without the instance component between the '@' and - the '.'), then
+          the escaped sysfs path of the device is automatically used as the
+          instance.
+        * SystemCallFilter= in unit files has been extended so that an "errno"
+          can be specified individually for each system call. Example:
+          SystemCallFilter=~uname:EILSEQ.
+        * The cgroup delegation logic has been substantially updated. Delegate=
+          now optionally takes a list of controllers (instead of a boolean, as
+          before), which lists the controllers to delegate at least.
+        * The networkd DHCPv6 client now implements the FQDN option (RFC 4704).
+        * A new LogLevelMax= setting configures the maximum log level any
+          process of the service may log at (i.e. anything with a lesser
+          priority than what is specified is automatically dropped). A new
+          LogExtraFields= setting allows configuration of additional journal
+          fields to attach to all log records generated by any of the unit's
+          processes.
+        * New StandardInputData= and StandardInputText= settings along with the
+          new option StandardInput=data may be used to configure textual or
+          binary data that shall be passed to the executed service process via
+          standard input, encoded in-line in the unit file.
+        * StandardInput=, StandardOutput= and StandardError= may now be used to
+          connect stdin/stdout/stderr of executed processes directly with a
+          file or AF_UNIX socket in the file system, using the new "file:" option.
+        * A new unit file option CollectMode= has been added, that allows
+          tweaking the garbage collection logic for units. It may be used to
+          tell systemd to garbage collect units that have failed automatically
+          (normally it only GCs units that exited successfully). systemd-run
+          and systemd-mount expose this new functionality with a new -G option.
+        * "machinectl bind" may now be used to bind mount non-directories
+          (i.e. regularfiles, devices, fifos, sockets).
+        * systemd-analyze gained a new verb "calendar" for validating and
+          testing calendar time specifications to use for OnCalendar= in timer
+          units. Besides validating the expression it will calculate the next
+          time the specified expression would elapse.
+        * In addition to the pre-existing FailureAction= unit file setting
+          there's now SuccessAction=, for configuring a shutdown action to
+          execute when a unit completes successfully. This is useful in
+          particular inside containers that shall terminate after some workload
+          has been completed. Also, both options are now supported for all unit
+          types, not just services.
+        * networkds's IP rule support gained two new options
+          IncomingInterface= and OutgoingInterface= for configuring the incoming
+          and outgoing interfaces of configured rules. systemd-networkd also
+          gained support for "vxcan" network devices.
+        * networkd gained a new setting RequiredForOnline=, taking a
+          boolean. If set, systemd-wait-online will take it into consideration
+          when determining that the system is up, otherwise it will ignore the
+          interface for this purpose.
+        * The sd_notify() protocol gained support for a new operation: with
+          FDSTOREREMOVE=1 file descriptors may be removed from the per-service
+          store again, ahead of POLLHUP or POLLERR when they are removed
+          anyway.
+        * A new document doc/ has been added to the source tree,
+          that documents the UID/GID range and assignment assumptions and
+          requirements of systemd.
+        * The watchdog device PID 1 will ping may now be configured through the
+          WatchdogDevice= configuration file setting, or by setting the
+          systemd.watchdog_service= kernel commandline option.
+        * systemd-resolved's gained support for registering DNS-SD services on
+          the local network using MulticastDNS. Services may either be
+          registered by dropping in a .dnssd file in /etc/systemd/dnssd/ (or
+          the same dir below /run, /usr/lib), or through its D-Bus API.
+        * The sd_notify() protocol can now with EXTEND_TIMEOUT_USEC=microsecond
+          extend the effective start, runtime, and stop time. The service must
+          continue to send EXTEND_TIMEOUT_USEC within the period specified to
+          prevent the service manager from making the service as timedout.
+        * systemd-resolved's DNSSEC support gained support for RFC 8080
+          (Ed25519 keys and signatures).
+        * The systemd-resolve command line tool gained a new set of options
+          --set-dns=, --set-domain=, --set-llmnr=, --set-mdns=, --set-dnssec=,
+          --set-nta= and --revert to configure per-interface DNS configuration
+          dynamically during runtime. It's useful for pushing DNS information
+          into systemd-resolved from DNS hook scripts that various interface
+          managing software supports (such as pppd).
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --network-namespace-path= command line
+          option, which may be used to make a container join an existing
+          network namespace, by specifying a path to a "netns" file.
+        Contributions from: Alan Jenkins, Alan Robertson, Alessandro Ghedini,
+        Andrew Jeddeloh, Antonio Rojas, Ari, asavah, bleep_blop, Carsten
+        Strotmann, Christian Brauner, Christian Hesse, Clinton Roy, Collin
+        Eggert, Cong Wang, Daniel Black, Daniel Lockyer, Daniel Rusek, Dimitri
+        John Ledkov, Dmitry Rozhkov, Dongsu Park, Edward A. James, Evgeny
+        Vereshchagin, Florian Klink, Franck Bui, Gwendal Grignou, Hans de
+        Goede, Harald Hoyer, Hristo Venev, Iago López Galeiras, Ikey Doherty,
+        Jakub Wilk, Jérémy Rosen, Jiahui Xie, John Lin, José Bollo, Josef
+        Andersson, juga0, Krzysztof Nowicki, Kyle Walker, Lars Karlitski, Lars
+        Kellogg-Stedman, Lauri Tirkkonen, Lennart Poettering, Lubomir Rintel,
+        Luca Bruno, Lucas Werkmeister, Lukáš Nykrýn, Lukáš Říha, Lukasz
+        Rubaszewski, Maciej S. Szmigiero, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcus Folkesson,
+        Martin Steuer, Mathieu Trudel-Lapierre, Matija Skala,
+        Matthias-Christian Ott, Max Resch, Michael Biebl, Michael Vogt, Michal
+        Koutný, Michal Sekletar, Mike Gilbert, Muhammet Kara, Neil Brown, Olaf
+        Hering, Ondrej Kozina, Patrik Flykt, Patryk Kocielnik, Peter Hutterer,
+        Piotr Drąg, Razvan Cojocaru, Robin McCorkell, Roland Hieber, Saran
+        Tunyasuvunakool, Sergey Ptashnick, Shawn Landden, Shuang Liu, Simon
+        Arlott, Simon Peeters, Stanislav Angelovič, Stefan Agner, Susant
+        Sahani, Sylvain Plantefève, Thomas Blume, Thomas Haller, Tiago Salem
+        Herrmann, Tinu Weber, Tom Stellard, Topi Miettinen, Torsten Hilbrich,
+        Vito Caputo, Vladislav Vishnyakov, WaLyong Cho, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew
+        Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Zeal Jagannatha
+        — Berlin, 2017-12-14
+        * INCOMPATIBILITY: systemd-logind.service and other long-running
+          services now run inside an IPv4/IPv6 sandbox, prohibiting them any IP
+          communication with the outside. This generally improves security of
+          the system, and is in almost all cases a safe and good choice, as
+          these services do not and should not provide any network-facing
+          functionality. However, systemd-logind uses the glibc NSS API to
+          query the user database. This creates problems on systems where NSS
+          is set up to directly consult network services for user database
+          lookups. In particular, this creates incompatibilities with the
+          "nss-nis" module, which attempts to directly contact the NIS/YP
+          network servers it is configured for, and will now consistently
+          fail. In such cases, it is possible to turn off IP sandboxing for
+          systemd-logind.service (set IPAddressDeny= in its [Service] section
+          to the empty string, via a .d/ unit file drop-in). Downstream
+          distributions might want to update their nss-nis packaging to include
+          such a drop-in snippet, accordingly, to hide this incompatibility
+          from the user. Another option is to make use of glibc's nscd service
+          to proxy such network requests through a privilege-separated, minimal
+          local caching daemon, or to switch to more modern technologies such
+          sssd, whose NSS hook-ups generally do not involve direct network
+          access. In general, we think it's definitely time to question the
+          implementation choices of nss-nis, i.e. whether it's a good idea
+          today to embed a network-facing loadable module into all local
+          processes that need to query the user database, including the most
+          trivial and benign ones, such as "ls". For more details about
+          IPAddressDeny= see below.
+        * A new modprobe.d drop-in is now shipped by default that sets the
+          bonding module option max_bonds=0. This overrides the kernel default,
+          to avoid conflicts and ambiguity as to whether or not bond0 should be
+          managed by systemd-networkd or not. This resolves multiple issues
+          with bond0 properties not being applied, when bond0 is configured
+          with systemd-networkd. Distributors may choose to not package this,
+          however in that case users will be prevented from correctly managing
+          bond0 interface using systemd-networkd.
+        * systemd-analyze gained new verbs "get-log-level" and "get-log-target"
+          which print the logging level and target of the system manager. They
+          complement the existing "set-log-level" and "set-log-target" verbs
+          used to change those values.
+        * journald.conf gained a new boolean setting ReadKMsg= which defaults
+          to on. If turned off kernel log messages will not be read by
+          systemd-journald or included in the logs. It also gained a new
+          setting LineMax= for configuring the maximum line length in
+          STDOUT/STDERR log streams. The new default for this value is 48K, up
+          from the previous hardcoded 2048.
+        * A new unit setting RuntimeDirectoryPreserve= has been added, which
+          allows more detailed control of what to do with a runtime directory
+          configured with RuntimeDirectory= (i.e. a directory below /run or
+          $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR) after a unit is stopped.
+        * The RuntimeDirectory= setting for units gained support for creating
+          deeper subdirectories below /run or $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR, instead of just
+          one top-level directory.
+        * Units gained new options StateDirectory=, CacheDirectory=,
+          LogsDirectory= and ConfigurationDirectory= which are closely related
+          to RuntimeDirectory= but manage per-service directories below
+          /var/lib, /var/cache, /var/log and /etc. By making use of them it is
+          possible to write unit files which when activated automatically gain
+          properly owned service specific directories in these locations, thus
+          making unit files self-contained and increasing compatibility with
+          stateless systems and factory reset where /etc or /var are
+          unpopulated at boot. Matching these new settings there's also
+          StateDirectoryMode=, CacheDirectoryMode=, LogsDirectoryMode=,
+          ConfigurationDirectoryMode= for configuring the access mode of these
+          directories. These settings are particularly useful in combination
+          with DynamicUser=yes as they provide secure, properly-owned,
+          writable, and stateful locations for storage, excluded from the
+          sandbox that such services live in otherwise.
+        * Automake support has been removed from this release. systemd is now
+          Meson-only.
+        * systemd-journald will now aggressively cache client metadata during
+          runtime, speeding up log write performance under pressure. This comes
+          at a small price though: as much of the metadata is read
+          asynchronously from /proc/ (and isn't implicitly attached to log
+          datagrams by the kernel, like UID/GID/PID/SELinux are) this means the
+          metadata stored alongside a log entry might be slightly
+          out-of-date. Previously it could only be slightly newer than the log
+          message. The time window is small however, and given that the kernel
+          is unlikely to be improved anytime soon in this regard, this appears
+          acceptable to us.
+        * nss-myhostname/systemd-resolved will now by default synthesize an
+          A/AAAA resource record for the "_gateway" hostname, pointing to the
+          current default IP gateway. Previously it did that for the "gateway"
+          name, hampering adoption, as some distributions wanted to leave that
+          hostname open for local use. The old behaviour may still be
+          requested at build time.
+        * systemd-networkd's [Address] section in .network files gained a new
+          Scope= setting for configuring the IP address scope. The [Network]
+          section gained a new boolean setting ConfigureWithoutCarrier= that
+          tells systemd-networkd to ignore link sensing when configuring the
+          device. The [DHCP] section gained a new Anonymize= boolean option for
+          turning on a number of options suggested in RFC 7844. A new
+          [RoutingPolicyRule] section has been added for configuring the IP
+          routing policy. The [Route] section has gained support for a new
+          Type= setting which permits configuring
+          blackhole/unreachable/prohibit routes.
+        * The [VRF] section in .netdev files gained a new Table= setting for
+          configuring the routing table to use. The [Tunnel] section gained a
+          new Independent= boolean field for configuring tunnels independent of
+          an underlying network interface. The [Bridge] section gained a new
+          GroupForwardMask= option for configuration of propagation of link
+          local frames between bridge ports.
+        * The WakeOnLan= setting in .link files gained support for a number of
+          new modes. A new TCP6SegmentationOffload= setting has been added for
+          configuring TCP/IPv6 hardware segmentation offload.
+        * The IPv6 RA sender implementation may now optionally send out RDNSS
+          and RDNSSL records to supply DNS configuration to peers.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained support for a new --system-call-filter= command
+          line option for adding and removing entries in the default system
+          call filter it applies. Moreover systemd-nspawn has been changed to
+          implement a system call allow list instead of a deny list.
+        * systemd-run gained support for a new --pipe command line option. If
+          used the STDIN/STDOUT/STDERR file descriptors passed to systemd-run
+          are directly passed on to the activated transient service
+          executable. This allows invoking arbitrary processes as systemd
+          services (for example to take benefit of dependency management,
+          accounting management, resource management or log management that is
+          done automatically for services) — while still allowing them to be
+          integrated in a classic UNIX shell pipeline.
+        * When a service sends RELOAD=1 via sd_notify() and reload propagation
+          using ReloadPropagationTo= is configured, a reload is now propagated
+          to configured units. (Previously this was only done on explicitly
+          requested reloads, using "systemctl reload" or an equivalent
+          command.)
+        * For each service unit a restart counter is now kept: it is increased
+          each time the service is restarted due to Restart=, and may be
+          queried using "systemctl show -p NRestarts …".
+        * New system call filter groups @aio, @sync, @chown, @setuid, @memlock,
+          @signal and @timer have been added, for usage with SystemCallFilter=
+          in unit files and the new --system-call-filter= command line option
+          of systemd-nspawn (see above).
+        * ExecStart= lines in unit files gained two new modifiers: when a
+          command line is prefixed with "!" the command will be executed as
+          configured, except for the credentials applied by
+          setuid()/setgid()/setgroups(). It is very similar to the pre-existing
+          "+", but does still apply namespacing options unlike "+". There's
+          also "!!" now, which is mostly identical, but becomes a NOP on
+          systems that support ambient capabilities. This is useful to write
+          unit files that work with ambient capabilities where possible but
+          automatically fall back to traditional privilege dropping mechanisms
+          on systems where this is not supported.
+        * ListenNetlink= settings in socket units now support RDMA netlink
+          sockets.
+        * A new unit file setting LockPersonality= has been added which permits
+          locking down the chosen execution domain ("personality") of a service
+          during runtime.
+        * A new special target "" has been added, which is
+          ordered before all text logins, and may be used to order services
+          before textual logins acquire access to the console.
+        * systemd will now attempt to load the virtio-rng.ko kernel module very
+          early on if a VM environment supporting this is detected. This should
+          improve entropy during early boot in virtualized environments.
+        * A _netdev option is now supported in /etc/crypttab that operates in a
+          similar way as the same option in /etc/fstab: it permits configuring
+          encrypted devices that need to be ordered after the network is up.
+          Following this logic, two new special targets
+ and have been
+          added that are to what and
+ are to
+        * Service units gained a new UnsetEnvironment= setting which permits
+          unsetting specific environment variables for services that are
+          normally passed to it (for example in order to mask out locale
+          settings for specific services that can't deal with it).
+        * Units acquired a new boolean option IPAccounting=. When turned on, IP
+          traffic accounting (packet count as well as byte count) is done for
+          the service, and shown as part of "systemctl status" or "systemd-run
+          --wait".
+        * Service units acquired two new options IPAddressAllow= and
+          IPAddressDeny=, taking a list of IPv4 or IPv6 addresses and masks,
+          for configuring a simple IP access control list for all sockets of
+          the unit. These options are available also on .slice and .socket
+          units, permitting flexible access list configuration for individual
+          services as well as groups of services (as defined by a slice unit),
+          including system-wide. Note that IP ACLs configured this way are
+          enforced on every single IPv4 and IPv6 socket created by any process
+          of the service unit, and apply to ingress as well as egress traffic.
+        * If CPUAccounting= or IPAccounting= is turned on for a unit a new
+          structured log message is generated each time the unit is stopped,
+          containing information about the consumed resources of this
+          invocation.
+        * A new setting KeyringMode= has been added to unit files, which may be
+          used to control how the kernel keyring is set up for executed
+          processes.
+        * "systemctl poweroff", "systemctl reboot", "systemctl halt",
+          "systemctl kexec" and "systemctl exit" are now always asynchronous in
+          behaviour (that is: these commands return immediately after the
+          operation was enqueued instead of waiting for the operation to
+          complete). Previously, "systemctl poweroff" and "systemctl reboot"
+          were asynchronous on systems using systemd-logind (i.e. almost
+          always, and like they were on sysvinit), and the other three commands
+          were unconditionally synchronous. With this release this is cleaned
+          up, and callers will see the same asynchronous behaviour on all
+          systems for all five operations.
+        * systemd-logind gained new Halt() and CanHalt() bus calls for halting
+          the system.
+        * .timer units now accept calendar specifications in other timezones
+          than UTC or the local timezone.
+        * The tmpfiles snippet var.conf has been changed to create
+          /var/log/btmp with access mode 0660 instead of 0600. It was owned by
+          the "utmp" group already, and it appears to be generally understood
+          that members of "utmp" can modify/flush the utmp/wtmp/lastlog/btmp
+          databases. Previously this was implemented correctly for all these
+          databases excepts btmp, which has been opened up like this now
+          too. Note that while the other databases are world-readable
+          (i.e. 0644), btmp is not and remains more restrictive.
+        * The systemd-resolve tool gained a new --reset-server-features
+          switch. When invoked like this systemd-resolved will forget
+          everything it learnt about the features supported by the configured
+          upstream DNS servers, and restarts the feature probing logic on the
+          next resolver look-up for them at the highest feature level
+          again.
+        * The status dump systemd-resolved sends to the logs upon receiving
+          SIGUSR1 now also includes information about all DNS servers it is
+          configured to use, and the features levels it probed for them.
+        Contributions from: Abdó Roig-Maranges, Alan Jenkins, Alexander
+        Kuleshov, Andreas Rammhold, Andrew Jeddeloh, Andrew Soutar, Ansgar
+        Burchardt, Beniamino Galvani, Benjamin Berg, Benjamin Robin, Charles
+        Huber, Christian Hesse, Daniel Berrange, Daniel Kahn Gillmor, Daniel
+        Mack, Daniel Rusek, Daniel Șerbănescu, Davide Cavalca, Dimitri John
+        Ledkov, Diogo Pereira, Djalal Harouni, Dmitriy Geels, Dmitry Torokhov,
+        ettavolt, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Fabio Kung, Felipe Sateler, Franck Bui,
+        Hans de Goede, Harald Hoyer, Insun Pyo, Ivan Kurnosov, Ivan Shapovalov,
+        Jakub Wilk, Jan Synacek, Jason Gunthorpe, Jeremy Bicha, Jérémy Rosen,
+        John Lin, jonasBoss, Jonathan Lebon, Jonathan Teh, Jon Ringle, Jörg
+        Thalheim, Jouke Witteveen, juga0, Justin Capella, Justin Michaud,
+        Kai-Heng Feng, Lennart Poettering, Lion Yang, Luca Bruno, Lucas
+        Werkmeister, Lukáš Nykrýn, Marcel Hollerbach, Marcus Lundblad, Martin
+        Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Grzeschik, Michal Sekletar, Mike Gilbert,
+        Neil Brown, Nicolas Iooss, Patrik Flykt, pEJipE, Piotr Drąg, Russell
+        Stuart, S. Fan, Shengyao Xue, Stefan Pietsch, Susant Sahani, Tejun Heo,
+        Thomas Miller, Thomas Sailer, Tobias Hunger, Tomasz Pala, Tom
+        Gundersen, Tommi Rantala, Topi Miettinen, Torstein Husebø, userwithuid,
+        Vasilis Liaskovitis, Vito Caputo, WaLyong Cho, William Douglas, Xiang
+        Fan, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2017-10-06
+        * Meson is now supported as build system in addition to Automake. It is
+          our plan to remove Automake in one of our next releases, so that
+          Meson becomes our exclusive build system. Hence, please start using
+          the Meson build system in your downstream packaging. There's plenty
+          of documentation around how to use Meson, the extremely brief
+          summary:
+              ./ && ./configure && make && sudo make install
+          becomes:
+              meson build && ninja -C build && sudo ninja -C build install
+        * Unit files gained support for a new JobRunningTimeoutUSec= setting,
+          which permits configuring a timeout on the time a job is
+          running. This is particularly useful for setting timeouts on jobs for
+          .device units.
+        * Unit files gained two new options ConditionUser= and ConditionGroup=
+          for conditionalizing units based on the identity of the user/group
+          running a systemd user instance.
+        * systemd-networkd now understands a new FlowLabel= setting in the
+          [VXLAN] section of .network files, as well as a Priority= in
+          [Bridge], GVRP= + MVRP= + LooseBinding= + ReorderHeader= in [VLAN]
+          and GatewayOnlink= + IPv6Preference= + Protocol= in [Route]. It also
+          gained support for configuration of GENEVE links, and IPv6 address
+          labels. The [Network] section gained the new IPv6ProxyNDP= setting.
+        * .link files now understand a new Port= setting.
+        * systemd-networkd's DHCP support gained support for DHCP option 119
+          (domain search list).
+        * systemd-networkd gained support for serving IPv6 address ranges using
+          the Router Advertisement protocol. The new .network configuration
+          section [IPv6Prefix] may be used to configure the ranges to
+          serve. This is implemented based on a new, minimal, native server
+          implementation of RA.
+        * journalctl's --output= switch gained support for a new parameter
+          "short-iso-precise" for a mode where timestamps are shown as precise
+          ISO date values.
+        * systemd-udevd's "net_id" builtin may now generate stable network
+          interface names from IBM PowerVM VIO devices as well as ACPI platform
+          devices.
+        * MulticastDNS support in systemd-resolved may now be explicitly
+          enabled/disabled using the new MulticastDNS= configuration file
+          option.
+        * systemd-resolved may now optionally use libidn2 instead of the libidn
+          for processing internationalized domain names. Support for libidn2
+          should be considered experimental and should not be enabled by
+          default yet.
+        * "machinectl pull-tar" and related call may now do verification of
+          downloaded images using SUSE-style .sha256 checksum files in addition
+          to the already existing support for validating using Ubuntu-style
+          SHA256SUMS files.
+        * sd-bus gained support for a new sd_bus_message_appendv() call which
+          is va_list equivalent of sd_bus_message_append().
+        * sd-boot gained support for validating images using SHIM/MOK.
+        * The SMACK code learnt support for "onlycap".
+        * systemd-mount --umount is now much smarter in figuring out how to
+          properly unmount a device given its mount or device path.
+        * The code to call libnss_dns as a fallback from libnss_resolve when
+          the communication with systemd-resolved fails was removed. This
+          fallback was redundant and interfered with the [!UNAVAIL=return]
+          suffix. See nss-resolve(8) for the recommended configuration.
+        * systemd-logind may now be restarted without losing state. It stores
+          the file descriptors for devices it manages in the system manager
+          using the FDSTORE= mechanism. Please note that further changes in
+          other components may be required to make use of this (for example
+          Xorg has code to listen for stops of systemd-logind and terminate
+          itself when logind is stopped or restarted, in order to avoid using
+          stale file descriptors for graphical devices, which is now
+          counterproductive and must be reverted in order for restarts of
+          systemd-logind to be safe. See
+        * All kernel-install plugins are called with the environment variable
+          KERNEL_INSTALL_MACHINE_ID which is set to the machine ID given by
+          /etc/machine-id. If the machine ID could not be determined,
+          $KERNEL_INSTALL_MACHINE_ID will be empty. Plugins should not put
+          anything in the entry directory (passed as the second argument) if
+          $KERNEL_INSTALL_MACHINE_ID is empty. For backwards compatibility, a
+          temporary directory is passed as the entry directory and removed
+          after all the plugins exit.
+        Contributions from: Adrian Heine né Lang, Aggelos Avgerinos, Alexander
+        Kurtz, Alexandros Frantzis, Alexey Brodkin, Alex Lu, Amir Pakdel, Amir
+        Yalon, Anchor Cat, Anthony Parsons, Bastien Nocera, Benjamin Gilbert,
+        Benjamin Robin, Boucman, Charles Plessy, Chris Chiu, Chris Lamb,
+        Christian Brauner, Christian Hesse, Colin Walters, Daniel Drake,
+        Danielle Church, Daniel Molkentin, Daniel Rusek, Daniel Wang, Davide
+        Cavalca, David Herrmann, David Michael, Dax Kelson, Dimitri John
+        Ledkov, Djalal Harouni, Dušan Kazik, Elias Probst, Evgeny Vereshchagin,
+        Federico Di Pierro, Felipe Sateler, Felix Zhang, Franck Bui, Gary
+        Tierney, George McCollister, Giedrius Statkevičius, Hans de Goede,
+        hecke, Hendrik Westerberg, Hristo Venev, Ian Wienand, Insun Pyo, Ivan
+        Shapovalov, James Cowgill, James Hemsing, Janne Heß, Jan Synacek, Jason
+        Reeder, João Paulo Rechi Vita, John Paul Adrian Glaubitz, Jörg
+        Thalheim, Josef Andersson, Josef Gajdusek, Julian Mehne, Kai Krakow,
+        Krzysztof Jackiewicz, Lars Karlitski, Lennart Poettering, Lluís Gili,
+        Lucas Werkmeister, Lukáš Nykrýn, Łukasz Stelmach, Mantas Mikulėnas,
+        Marcin Bachry, Marcus Cooper, Mark Stosberg, Martin Pitt, Matija Skala,
+        Matt Clarkson, Matthew Garrett, Matthias Greiner, Matthijs van Duin,
+        Max Resch, Michael Biebl, Michal Koutný, Michal Sekletar, Michal
+        Soltys, Michal Suchanek, Mike Gilbert, Nate Clark, Nathaniel R. Lewis,
+        Neil Brown, Nikolai Kondrashov, Pascal S. de Kloe, Pat Riehecky, Patrik
+        Flykt, Paul Kocialkowski, Peter Hutterer, Philip Withnall, Piotr
+        Szydełko, Rafael Fontenelle, Ray Strode, Richard Maw, Roelf Wichertjes,
+        Ronny Chevalier, Sarang S. Dalal, Sjoerd Simons, slodki, Stefan
+        Schweter, Susant Sahani, Ted Wood, Thomas Blume, Thomas Haller, Thomas
+        H. P. Andersen, Timothée Ravier, Tobias Jungel, Tobias Stoeckmann, Tom
+        Gundersen, Tom Yan, Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog,
+        userwithuid, Vito Caputo, Waldemar Brodkorb, WaLyong Cho, Yu, Li-Yu,
+        Yusuke Nojima, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Дамјан
+        Георгиевски
+        — Berlin, 2017-07-12
+        * The "hybrid" control group mode has been modified to improve
+          compatibility with "legacy" cgroups-v1 setups. Specifically, the
+          "hybrid" setup of /sys/fs/cgroup is now pretty much identical to
+          "legacy" (including /sys/fs/cgroup/systemd as "name=systemd" named
+          cgroups-v1 hierarchy), the only externally visible change being that
+          the cgroups-v2 hierarchy is also mounted, to
+          /sys/fs/cgroup/unified. This should provide a large degree of
+          compatibility with "legacy" cgroups-v1, while taking benefit of the
+          better management capabilities of cgroups-v2.
+        * The default control group setup mode may be selected both a boot-time
+          via a set of kernel command line parameters (specifically:
+          systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy= and
+          systemd.legacy_systemd_cgroup_controller=), as well as a compile-time
+          default selected on the configure command line
+          (--with-default-hierarchy=). The upstream default is "hybrid"
+          (i.e. the cgroups-v1 + cgroups-v2 mixture discussed above) now, but
+          this will change in a future systemd version to be "unified" (pure
+          cgroups-v2 mode). The third option for the compile time option is
+          "legacy", to enter pure cgroups-v1 mode. We recommend downstream
+          distributions to default to "hybrid" mode for release distributions,
+          starting with v233. We recommend "unified" for development
+          distributions (specifically: distributions such as Fedora's rawhide)
+          as that's where things are headed in the long run. Use "legacy" for
+          greatest stability and compatibility only.
+        * Note one current limitation of "unified" and "hybrid" control group
+          setup modes: the kernel currently does not permit the systemd --user
+          instance (i.e. unprivileged code) to migrate processes between two
+          disconnected cgroup subtrees, even if both are managed and owned by
+          the user. This effectively means "systemd-run --user --scope" doesn't
+          work when invoked from outside of any "systemd --user" service or
+          scope. Specifically, it is not supported from session scopes. We are
+          working on fixing this in a future systemd version. (See #3388 for
+          further details about this.)
+        * DBus policy files are now installed into /usr rather than /etc. Make
+          sure your system has dbus >= 1.9.18 running before upgrading to this
+          version, or override the install path with --with-dbuspolicydir= .
+        * All python scripts shipped with systemd (specifically: the various
+          tests written in Python) now require Python 3.
+        * systemd unit tests can now run standalone (without the source or
+          build directories), and can be installed into /usr/lib/systemd/tests/
+          with 'make install-tests'.
+        * Note that from this version on, CONFIG_CRYPTO_USER_API_HASH,
+          CONFIG_CRYPTO_HMAC and CONFIG_CRYPTO_SHA256 need to be enabled in the
+          kernel.
+        * Support for the %c, %r, %R specifiers in unit files has been
+          removed. Specifiers are not supposed to be dependent on configuration
+          in the unit file itself (so that they resolve the same regardless
+          where used in the unit files), but these specifiers were influenced
+          by the Slice= option.
+        * The shell invoked by debug-shell.service now defaults to /bin/sh in
+          all cases. If distributions want to use a different shell for this
+          purpose (for example Fedora's /sbin/sushell) they need to specify
+          this explicitly at configure time using --with-debug-shell=.
+        * The confirmation spawn prompt has been reworked to offer the
+          following choices:
+           (c)ontinue, proceed without asking anymore
+           (D)ump, show the state of the unit
+           (f)ail, don't execute the command and pretend it failed
+           (h)elp
+           (i)nfo, show a short summary of the unit
+           (j)obs, show jobs that are in progress
+           (s)kip, don't execute the command and pretend it succeeded
+           (y)es, execute the command
+          The 'n' choice for the confirmation spawn prompt has been removed,
+          because its meaning was confusing.
+          The prompt may now also be redirected to an alternative console by
+          specifying the console as parameter to systemd.confirm_spawn=.
+        * Services of Type=notify require a READY=1 notification to be sent
+          during startup. If no such message is sent, the service now fails,
+          even if the main process exited with a successful exit code.
+        * Services that fail to start up correctly now always have their
+          ExecStopPost= commands executed. Previously, they'd enter "failed"
+          state directly, without executing these commands.
+        * The option MulticastDNS= of network configuration files has acquired
+          an actual implementation. With MulticastDNS=yes a host can resolve
+          names of remote hosts and reply to mDNS A and AAAA requests.
+        * When units are about to be started an additional check is now done to
+          ensure that all dependencies of type BindsTo= (when used in
+          combination with After=) have been started.
+        * systemd-analyze gained a new verb "syscall-filter" which shows which
+          system call groups are defined for the SystemCallFilter= unit file
+          setting, and which system calls they contain.
+        * A new system call filter group "@filesystem" has been added,
+          consisting of various file system related system calls. Group
+          "@reboot" has been added, covering reboot, kexec and shutdown related
+          calls. Finally, group "@swap" has been added covering swap
+          configuration related calls.
+        * A new unit file option RestrictNamespaces= has been added that may be
+          used to restrict access to the various process namespace types the
+          Linux kernel provides. Specifically, it may be used to take away the
+          right for a service unit to create additional file system, network,
+          user, and other namespaces. This sandboxing option is particularly
+          relevant due to the high amount of recently discovered namespacing
+          related vulnerabilities in the kernel.
+        * systemd-udev's .link files gained support for a new AutoNegotiation=
+          setting for configuring Ethernet auto-negotiation.
+        * systemd-networkd's .network files gained support for a new
+          ListenPort= setting in the [DHCP] section to explicitly configure the
+          UDP client port the DHCP client shall listen on.
+        * .network files gained a new Unmanaged= boolean setting for explicitly
+          excluding one or more interfaces from management by systemd-networkd.
+        * The systemd-networkd ProxyARP= option has been renamed to
+          IPV4ProxyARP=. Similarly, VXLAN-specific option ARPProxy= has been
+          renamed to ReduceARPProxy=. The old names continue to be available
+          for compatibility.
+        * systemd-networkd gained support for configuring IPv6 Proxy NDP
+          addresses via the new IPv6ProxyNDPAddress= .network file setting.
+        * systemd-networkd's bonding device support gained support for two new
+          configuration options ActiveSlave= and PrimarySlave=.
+        * The various options in the [Match] section of .network files gained
+          support for negative matching.
+        * New systemd-specific mount options are now understood in /etc/fstab:
+          x-systemd.mount-timeout= may be used to configure the maximum
+          permitted runtime of the mount command.
+          x-systemd.device-bound may be set to bind a mount point to its
+          backing device unit, in order to automatically remove a mount point
+          if its backing device is unplugged. This option may also be
+          configured through the new SYSTEMD_MOUNT_DEVICE_BOUND udev property
+          on the block device, which is now automatically set for all CDROM
+          drives, so that mounted CDs are automatically unmounted when they are
+          removed from the drive.
+          x-systemd.after= and x-systemd.before= may be used to explicitly
+          order a mount after or before another unit or mount point.
+        * Enqueued start jobs for device units are now automatically garbage
+          collected if there are no jobs waiting for them anymore.
+        * systemctl list-jobs gained two new switches: with --after, for every
+          queued job the jobs it's waiting for are shown; with --before the
+          jobs which it's blocking are shown.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained support for ephemeral boots from disk images
+          (or in other words: --ephemeral and --image= may now be
+          combined). Moreover, ephemeral boots are now supported for normal
+          directories, even if the backing file system is not btrfs. Of course,
+          if the file system does not support file system snapshots or
+          reflinks, the initial copy operation will be relatively expensive, but
+          this should still be suitable for many use cases.
+        * Calendar time specifications in .timer units now support
+          specifications relative to the end of a month by using "~" instead of
+          "-" as separator between month and day. For example, "*-02~03" means
+          "the third last day in February". In addition a new syntax for
+          repeated events has been added using the "/" character. For example,
+          "9..17/2:00" means "every two hours from 9am to 5pm".
+        * systemd-socket-proxyd gained a new parameter --connections-max= for
+          configuring the maximum number of concurrent connections.
+        * sd-id128 gained a new API for generating unique IDs for the host in a
+          way that does not leak the machine ID. Specifically,
+          sd_id128_get_machine_app_specific() derives an ID based on the
+          machine ID in a well-defined, non-reversible, stable way. This is
+          useful whenever an identifier for the host is needed but where the
+          identifier shall not be useful to identify the system beyond the
+          scope of the application itself. (Internally this uses HMAC-SHA256 as
+          keyed hash function using the machine ID as input.)
+        * NotifyAccess= gained a new supported value "exec". When set
+          notifications are accepted from all processes systemd itself invoked,
+          including all control processes.
+        * .nspawn files gained support for defining overlay mounts using the
+          Overlay= and OverlayReadOnly= options. Previously this functionality
+          was only available on the systemd-nspawn command line.
+        * systemd-nspawn's --bind= and --overlay= options gained support for
+          bind/overlay mounts whose source lies within the container tree by
+          prefixing the source path with "+".
+        * systemd-nspawn's --bind= and --overlay= options gained support for
+          automatically allocating a temporary source directory in /var/tmp
+          that is removed when the container dies. Specifically, if the source
+          directory is specified as empty string this mechanism is selected. An
+          example usage is --overlay=+/var::/var, which creates an overlay
+          mount based on the original /var contained in the image, overlaid
+          with a temporary directory in the host's /var/tmp. This way changes
+          to /var are automatically flushed when the container shuts down.
+        * systemd-nspawn --image= option does now permit raw file system block
+          devices (in addition to images containing partition tables, as
+          before).
+        * The disk image dissection logic in systemd-nspawn gained support for
+          automatically setting up LUKS encrypted as well as Verity protected
+          partitions. When a container is booted from an encrypted image the
+          passphrase is queried at start-up time. When a container with Verity
+          data is started, the root hash is search in a ".roothash" file
+          accompanying the disk image (alternatively, pass the root hash via
+          the new --root-hash= command line option).
+        * A new tool /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-dissect has been added that may
+          be used to dissect disk images the same way as systemd-nspawn does
+          it, following the Bootable Partition Specification. It may even be
+          used to mount disk images with complex partition setups (including
+          LUKS and Verity partitions) to a local host directory, in order to
+          inspect them. This tool is not considered public API (yet), and is
+          thus not installed into /usr/bin. Please do not rely on its
+          existence, since it might go away or be changed in later systemd
+          versions.
+        * A new generator "systemd-verity-generator" has been added, similar in
+          style to "systemd-cryptsetup-generator", permitting automatic setup of
+          Verity root partitions when systemd boots up. In order to make use of
+          this your partition setup should follow the Discoverable Partitions
+          Specification, and the GPT partition ID of the root file system
+          partition should be identical to the upper 128bit of the Verity root
+          hash. The GPT partition ID of the Verity partition protecting it
+          should be the lower 128bit of the Verity root hash. If the partition
+          image follows this model it is sufficient to specify a single
+          "roothash=" kernel command line argument to both configure which root
+          image and verity partition to use as well as the root hash for
+          it. Note that systemd-nspawn's Verity support follows the same
+          semantics, meaning that disk images with proper Verity data in place
+          may be booted in containers with systemd-nspawn as well as on
+          physical systems via the verity generator. Also note that the "mkosi"
+          tool available at has been updated
+          to generate Verity protected disk images following this scheme. In
+          fact, it has been updated to generate disk images that optionally
+          implement a complete UEFI SecureBoot trust chain, involving a signed
+          kernel and initrd image that incorporates such a root hash as well as
+          a Verity-enabled root partition.
+        * The hardware database (hwdb) udev supports has been updated to carry
+          accelerometer quirks.
+        * All system services are now run with a fresh kernel keyring set up
+          for them. The invocation ID is stored by default in it, thus
+          providing a safe, non-overridable way to determine the invocation
+          ID of each service.
+        * Service unit files gained new BindPaths= and BindReadOnlyPaths=
+          options for bind mounting arbitrary paths in a service-specific
+          way. When these options are used, arbitrary host or service files and
+          directories may be mounted to arbitrary locations in the service's
+          view.
+        * Documentation has been added that lists all of systemd's low-level
+          environment variables:
+        * sd-daemon gained a new API sd_is_socket_sockaddr() for determining
+          whether a specific socket file descriptor matches a specified socket
+          address.
+        * systemd-firstboot has been updated to check for the
+          systemd.firstboot= kernel command line option. It accepts a boolean
+          and when set to false the first boot questions are skipped.
+        * systemd-fstab-generator has been updated to check for the
+          systemd.volatile= kernel command line option, which either takes an
+          optional boolean parameter or the special value "state". If used the
+          system may be booted in a "volatile" boot mode. Specifically,
+          "systemd.volatile" is used, the root directory will be mounted as
+          tmpfs, and only /usr is mounted from the actual root file system. If
+          "systemd.volatile=state" is used, the root directory will be mounted
+          as usual, but /var is mounted as tmpfs. This concept provides similar
+          functionality as systemd-nspawn's --volatile= option, but provides it
+          on physical boots. Use this option for implementing stateless
+          systems, or testing systems with all state and/or configuration reset
+          to the defaults. (Note though that many distributions are not
+          prepared to boot up without a populated /etc or /var, though.)
+        * systemd-gpt-auto-generator gained support for LUKS encrypted root
+          partitions. Previously it only supported LUKS encrypted partitions
+          for all other uses, except for the root partition itself.
+        * Socket units gained support for listening on AF_VSOCK sockets for
+          communication in virtualized QEMU environments.
+        * The "configure" script gained a new option --with-fallback-hostname=
+          for specifying the fallback hostname to use if none is configured in
+          /etc/hostname. For example, by specifying
+          --with-fallback-hostname=fedora it is possible to default to a
+          hostname of "fedora" on pristine installations.
+        * systemd-cgls gained support for a new --unit= switch for listing only
+          the control groups of a specific unit. Similar --user-unit= has been
+          added for listing only the control groups of a specific user unit.
+        * systemd-mount gained a new --umount switch for unmounting a mount or
+          automount point (and all mount/automount points below it).
+        * systemd will now refuse full configuration reloads (via systemctl
+          daemon-reload and related calls) unless at least 16MiB of free space
+          are available in /run. This is a safety precaution in order to ensure
+          that generators can safely operate after the reload completed.
+        * A new unit file option RootImage= has been added, which has a similar
+          effect as RootDirectory= but mounts the service's root directory from
+          a disk image instead of plain directory. This logic reuses the same
+          image dissection and mount logic that systemd-nspawn already uses,
+          and hence supports any disk images systemd-nspawn supports, including
+          those following the Discoverable Partition Specification, as well as
+          Verity enabled images. This option enables systemd to run system
+          services directly off disk images acting as resource bundles,
+          possibly even including full integrity data.
+        * A new MountAPIVFS= unit file option has been added, taking a boolean
+          argument. If enabled /proc, /sys and /dev (collectively called the
+          "API VFS") will be mounted for the service. This is only relevant if
+          RootDirectory= or RootImage= is used for the service, as these mounts
+          are of course in place in the host mount namespace anyway.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained support for a new --pivot-root= switch. If
+          specified the root directory within the container image is pivoted to
+          the specified mount point, while the original root disk is moved to a
+          different place. This option enables booting of ostree images
+          directly with systemd-nspawn.
+        * The systemd build scripts will no longer complain if the NTP server
+          addresses are not changed from the defaults. Google now supports
+          these NTP servers officially. We still recommend downstreams to
+          properly register an NTP pool with the NTP pool project though.
+        * coredumpctl gained a new "--reverse" option for printing the list
+          of coredumps in reverse order.
+        * coredumpctl will now show additional information about truncated and
+          inaccessible coredumps, as well as coredumps that are still being
+          processed. It also gained a new --quiet switch for suppressing
+          additional informational message in its output.
+        * coredumpctl gained support for only showing coredumps newer and/or
+          older than specific timestamps, using the new --since= and --until=
+          options, reminiscent of journalctl's options by the same name.
+        * The systemd-coredump logic has been improved so that it may be reused
+          to collect backtraces in non-compiled languages, for example in
+          scripting languages such as Python.
+        * machinectl will now show the UID shift of local containers, if user
+          namespacing is enabled for them.
+        * systemd will now optionally run "environment generator" binaries at
+          configuration load time. They may be used to add environment
+          variables to the environment block passed to services invoked. One
+          user environment generator is shipped by default that sets up
+          environment variables based on files dropped into /etc/environment.d
+          and ~/.config/environment.d/.
+        * systemd-resolved now includes the new, recently published 2017 DNSSEC
+          root key (KSK).
+        * hostnamed has been updated to report a new chassis type of
+          "convertible" to cover "foldable" laptops that can both act as a
+          tablet and as a laptop, such as various Lenovo Yoga devices.
+        Contributions from: Adrián López, Alexander Galanin, Alexander
+        Kochetkov, Alexandros Frantzis, Andrey Ulanov, Antoine Eiche, Baruch
+        Siach, Bastien Nocera, Benjamin Robin, Björn, Brandon Philips, Cédric
+        Schieli, Charles (Chas) Williams, Christian Hesse, Daniele Medri,
+        Daniel Drake, Daniel Rusek, Daniel Wagner, Dan Streetman, Dave Reisner,
+        David Glasser, David Herrmann, David Michael, Djalal Harouni, Dmitry
+        Khlebnikov, Dmitry Rozhkov, Dongsu Park, Douglas Christman, Earnestly,
+        Emil Soleyman, Eric Cook, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Felipe Sateler, Fionn
+        Cleary, Florian Klink, Francesco Brozzu, Franck Bui, Gabriel Rauter,
+        Gianluca Boiano, Giedrius Statkevičius, Graeme Lawes, Hans de Goede,
+        Harald Hoyer, Ian Kelling, Ivan Shapovalov, Jakub Wilk, Janne Heß, Jan
+        Synacek, Jason Reeder, Jonathan Boulle, Jörg Thalheim, Jouke Witteveen,
+        Karl Kraus, Kees Cook, Keith Busch, Kieran Colford, kilian-k, Lennart
+        Poettering, Lubomir Rintel, Lucas Werkmeister, Lukas Rusak, Maarten de
+        Vries, Maks Naumov, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marc-Andre Lureau, Marcin Bachry,
+        Mark Stosberg, Martin Ejdestig, Martin Pitt, Mauricio Faria de
+        Oliveira, micah, Michael Biebl, Michael Shields, Michal Schmidt, Michal
+        Sekletar, Michel Kraus, Mike Gilbert, Mikko Ylinen, Mirza Krak,
+        Namhyung Kim, nikolaof, peoronoob, Peter Hutterer, Peter Körner, Philip
+        Withnall, Piotr Drąg, Ray Strode, Reverend Homer, Rike-Benjamin
+        Schuppner, Robert Kreuzer, Ronny Chevalier, Ruslan Bilovol, sammynx,
+        Sergey Ptashnick, Sergiusz Urbaniak, Stefan Berger, Stefan Hajnoczi,
+        Stefan Schweter, Stuart McLaren, Susant Sahani, Sylvain Plantefève,
+        Taylor Smock, Tejun Heo, Thomas Blume, Thomas H. P. Andersen, Tibor
+        Nagy, Tobias Stoeckmann, Tom Gundersen, Torstein Husebø, Viktar
+        Vaŭčkievič, Viktor Mihajlovski, Vitaly Sulimov, Waldemar Brodkorb,
+        Walter Garcia-Fontes, Wim de With, Yassine Imounachen, Yi EungJun,
+        YunQiang Su, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Александр
+        Тихонов
+        — Berlin, 2017-03-01
+        * udev now runs with MemoryDenyWriteExecute=, RestrictRealtime= and
+          RestrictAddressFamilies= enabled. These sandboxing options should
+          generally be compatible with the various external udev call-out
+          binaries we are aware of, however there may be exceptions, in
+          particular when exotic languages for these call-outs are used. In
+          this case, consider turning off these settings locally.
+        * The new RemoveIPC= option can be used to remove IPC objects owned by
+          the user or group of a service when that service exits.
+        * The new ProtectKernelModules= option can be used to disable explicit
+          load and unload operations of kernel modules by a service. In
+          addition access to /usr/lib/modules is removed if this option is set.
+        * ProtectSystem= option gained a new value "strict", which causes the
+          whole file system tree with the exception of /dev, /proc, and /sys,
+          to be remounted read-only for a service.
+        * The new ProtectKernelTunables= option can be used to disable
+          modification of configuration files in /sys and /proc by a service.
+          Various directories and files are remounted read-only, so access is
+          restricted even if the file permissions would allow it.
+        * The new ProtectControlGroups= option can be used to disable write
+          access by a service to /sys/fs/cgroup.
+        * Various systemd services have been hardened with
+          ProtectKernelTunables=yes, ProtectControlGroups=yes,
+          RestrictAddressFamilies=.
+        * Support for dynamically creating users for the lifetime of a service
+          has been added. If DynamicUser=yes is specified, user and group IDs
+          will be allocated from the range 61184…65519 for the lifetime of the
+          service. They can be resolved using the new NSS
+          module. The module must be enabled in /etc/nsswitch.conf. Services
+          started in this way have PrivateTmp= and RemoveIPC= enabled, so that
+          any resources allocated by the service will be cleaned up when the
+          service exits. They also have ProtectHome=read-only and
+          ProtectSystem=strict enabled, so they are not able to make any
+          permanent modifications to the system.
+        * The nss-systemd module also always resolves root and nobody, making
+          it possible to have no /etc/passwd or /etc/group files in minimal
+          container or chroot environments.
+        * Services may be started with their own user namespace using the new
+          boolean PrivateUsers= option. Only root, nobody, and the uid/gid
+          under which the service is running are mapped. All other users are
+          mapped to nobody.
+        * Support for the cgroup namespace has been added to systemd-nspawn. If
+          supported by kernel, the container system started by systemd-nspawn
+          will have its own view of the cgroup hierarchy. This new behaviour
+          can be disabled using $SYSTEMD_NSPAWN_USE_CGNS environment variable.
+        * The new MemorySwapMax= option can be used to limit the maximum swap
+          usage under the unified cgroup hierarchy.
+        * Support for the CPU controller in the unified cgroup hierarchy has
+          been added, via the CPUWeight=, CPUStartupWeight=, CPUAccounting=
+          options. This controller requires out-of-tree patches for the kernel
+          and the support is provisional.
+        * Mount and automount units may now be created transiently
+          (i.e. dynamically at runtime via the bus API, instead of requiring
+          unit files in the file system).
+        * systemd-mount is a new tool which may mount file systems – much like
+          mount(8), optionally pulling in additional dependencies through
+          transient .mount and .automount units. For example, this tool
+          automatically runs fsck on a backing block device before mounting,
+          and allows the automount logic to be used dynamically from the
+          command line for establishing mount points. This tool is particularly
+          useful when dealing with removable media, as it will ensure fsck is
+          run – if necessary – before the first access and that the file system
+          is quickly unmounted after each access by utilizing the automount
+          logic. This maximizes the chance that the file system on the
+          removable media stays in a clean state, and if it isn't in a clean
+          state is fixed automatically.
+        * LazyUnmount=yes option for mount units has been added to expose the
+          umount --lazy option. Similarly, ForceUnmount=yes exposes the --force
+          option.
+        * /efi will be used as the mount point of the EFI boot partition, if
+          the directory is present, and the mount point was not configured
+          through other means (e.g. fstab). If /efi directory does not exist,
+          /boot will be used as before. This makes it easier to automatically
+          mount the EFI partition on systems where /boot is used for something
+          else.
+        * When operating on GPT disk images for containers, systemd-nspawn will
+          now mount the ESP to /boot or /efi according to the same rules as PID
+          1 running on a host. This allows tools like "bootctl" to operate
+          correctly within such containers, in order to make container images
+          bootable on physical systems.
+        * disk/by-id and disk/by-path symlinks are now created for NVMe drives.
+        * Two new user session targets have been added to support running
+          graphical sessions under the systemd --user instance:
+ and See
+          systemd.special(7) for a description of how those targets should be
+          used.
+        * The vconsole initialization code has been significantly reworked to
+          use KD_FONT_OP_GET/SET ioctls instead of KD_FONT_OP_COPY and better
+          support unicode keymaps. Font and keymap configuration will now be
+          copied to all allocated virtual consoles.
+        * FreeBSD's bhyve virtualization is now detected.
+        * Information recorded in the journal for core dumps now includes the
+          contents of /proc/mountinfo and the command line of the process at
+          the top of the process hierarchy (which is usually the init process
+          of the container).
+        * systemd-journal-gatewayd learned the --directory= option to serve
+          files from the specified location.
+        * journalctl --root=… can be used to peruse the journal in the
+          /var/log/ directories inside of a container tree. This is similar to
+          the existing --machine= option, but does not require the container to
+          be active.
+        * The hardware database has been extended to support
+          ID_INPUT_TRACKBALL, used in addition to ID_INPUT_MOUSE to identify
+          trackball devices.
+          MOUSE_WHEEL_CLICK_ANGLE_HORIZONTAL hwdb property has been added to
+          specify the click rate for mice which include a horizontal wheel with
+          a click rate that is different than the one for the vertical wheel.
+        * systemd-run gained a new --wait option that makes service execution
+          synchronous. (Specifically, the command will not return until the
+          specified service binary exited.)
+        * systemctl gained a new --wait option that causes the start command to
+          wait until the units being started have terminated again.
+        * A new journal output mode "short-full" has been added which displays
+          timestamps with abbreviated English day names and adds a timezone
+          suffix. Those timestamps include more information than the default
+          "short" output mode, and can be passed directly to journalctl's
+          --since= and --until= options.
+        * /etc/resolv.conf will be bind-mounted into containers started by
+          systemd-nspawn, if possible, so any changes to resolv.conf contents
+          are automatically propagated to the container.
+        * The number of instances for socket-activated services originating
+          from a single IP address can be limited with
+          MaxConnectionsPerSource=, extending the existing setting of
+          MaxConnections=.
+        * systemd-networkd gained support for vcan ("Virtual CAN") interface
+          configuration.
+        * .netdev and .network configuration can now be extended through
+          drop-ins.
+        * UDP Segmentation Offload, TCP Segmentation Offload, Generic
+          Segmentation Offload, Generic Receive Offload, Large Receive Offload
+          can be enabled and disabled using the new UDPSegmentationOffload=,
+          TCPSegmentationOffload=, GenericSegmentationOffload=,
+          GenericReceiveOffload=, LargeReceiveOffload= options in the
+          [Link] section of .link files.
+        * The Spanning Tree Protocol, Priority, Aging Time, and the Default
+          Port VLAN ID can be configured for bridge devices using the new STP=,
+          Priority=, AgeingTimeSec=, and DefaultPVID= settings in the [Bridge]
+          section of .netdev files.
+        * The route table to which routes received over DHCP or RA should be
+          added can be configured with the new RouteTable= option in the [DHCP]
+          and [IPv6AcceptRA] sections of .network files.
+        * The Address Resolution Protocol can be disabled on links managed by
+          systemd-networkd using the ARP=no setting in the [Link] section of
+          .network files.
+        * New environment variables $SERVICE_RESULT, $EXIT_CODE and
+          $EXIT_STATUS are set for ExecStop= and ExecStopPost= commands, and
+          encode information about the result and exit codes of the current
+          service runtime cycle.
+        * systemd-sysctl will now configure kernel parameters in the order
+          they occur in the configuration files. This matches what sysctl
+          has been traditionally doing.
+        * kernel-install "plugins" that are executed to perform various
+          tasks after a new kernel is added and before an old one is removed
+          can now return a special value to terminate the procedure and
+          prevent any later plugins from running.
+        * Journald's SplitMode=login setting has been deprecated. It has been
+          removed from documentation, and its use is discouraged. In a future
+          release it will be completely removed, and made equivalent to current
+          default of SplitMode=uid.
+        * Storage=both option setting in /etc/systemd/coredump.conf has been
+          removed. With fast LZ4 compression storing the core dump twice is not
+          useful.
+        * The --share-system systemd-nspawn option has been replaced with an
+          (undocumented) variable $SYSTEMD_NSPAWN_SHARE_SYSTEM, but the use of
+          this functionality is discouraged. In addition the variables
+          $SYSTEMD_NSPAWN_SHARE_NS_UTS may be used to control the unsharing of
+          individual namespaces.
+        * "machinectl list" now shows the IP address of running containers in
+          the output, as well as OS release information.
+        * "loginctl list" now shows the TTY of each session in the output.
+        * sd-bus gained new API calls sd_bus_track_set_recursive(),
+          sd_bus_track_get_recursive(), sd_bus_track_count_name(),
+          sd_bus_track_count_sender(). They permit usage of sd_bus_track peer
+          tracking objects in a "recursive" mode, where a single client can be
+          counted multiple times, if it takes multiple references.
+        * sd-bus gained new API calls sd_bus_set_exit_on_disconnect() and
+          sd_bus_get_exit_on_disconnect(). They may be used to make a
+          process using sd-bus automatically exit if the bus connection is
+          severed.
+        * Bus clients of the service manager may now "pin" loaded units into
+          memory, by taking an explicit reference on them. This is useful to
+          ensure the client can retrieve runtime data about the service even
+          after the service completed execution. Taking such a reference is
+          available only for privileged clients and should be helpful to watch
+          running services in a race-free manner, and in particular collect
+          information about exit statuses and results.
+        * The nss-resolve module has been changed to strictly return UNAVAIL
+          when communication via D-Bus with resolved failed, and NOTFOUND when
+          a lookup completed but was negative. This means it is now possible to
+          neatly configure fallbacks using nsswitch.conf result checking
+          expressions. Taking benefit of this, the new recommended
+          configuration line for the "hosts" entry in /etc/nsswitch.conf is:
+              hosts: files mymachines resolve [!UNAVAIL=return] dns myhostname
+        * A new setting CtrlAltDelBurstAction= has been added to
+          /etc/systemd/system.conf which may be used to configure the precise
+          behaviour if the user on the console presses Ctrl-Alt-Del more often
+          than 7 times in 2s. Previously this would unconditionally result in
+          an expedited, immediate reboot. With this new setting the precise
+          operation may be configured in more detail, and also turned off
+          entirely.
+        * In .netdev files two new settings RemoteChecksumTx= and
+          RemoteChecksumRx= are now understood that permit configuring the
+          remote checksumming logic for VXLAN networks.
+        * The service manager learnt a new "invocation ID" concept for invoked
+          services. Each runtime cycle of a service will get a new invocation
+          ID (a 128bit random UUID) assigned that identifies the current
+          run of the service uniquely and globally. A new invocation ID
+          is generated each time a service starts up. The journal will store
+          the invocation ID of a service along with any logged messages, thus
+          making the invocation ID useful for matching the online runtime of a
+          service with the offline log data it generated in a safe way without
+          relying on synchronized timestamps. In many ways this new service
+          invocation ID concept is similar to the kernel's boot ID concept that
+          uniquely and globally identifies the runtime of each boot. The
+          invocation ID of a service is passed to the service itself via an
+          environment variable ($INVOCATION_ID). A new bus call
+          GetUnitByInvocationID() has been added that is similar to GetUnit()
+          but instead of retrieving the bus path for a unit by its name
+          retrieves it by its invocation ID. The returned path is valid only as
+          long as the passed invocation ID is current.
+        * systemd-resolved gained a new "DNSStubListener" setting in
+          resolved.conf. It either takes a boolean value or the special values
+          "udp" and "tcp", and configures whether to enable the stub DNS
+          listener on
+        * IP addresses configured via networkd may now carry additional
+          configuration settings supported by the kernel. New options include:
+          HomeAddress=, DuplicateAddressDetection=, ManageTemporaryAddress=,
+          PrefixRoute=, AutoJoin=.
+        * The PAM configuration fragment file for "user@.service" shipped with
+          systemd (i.e. the --user instance of systemd) has been stripped to
+          the minimum necessary to make the system boot. Previously, it
+          contained Fedora-specific stanzas that did not apply to other
+          distributions. It is expected that downstream distributions add
+          additional configuration lines, matching their needs to this file,
+          using it only as rough template of what systemd itself needs. Note
+          that this reduced fragment does not even include an invocation of
+          pam_limits which most distributions probably want to add, even though
+          systemd itself does not need it. (There's also the new build time
+          option --with-pamconfdir=no to disable installation of the PAM
+          fragment entirely.)
+        * If PrivateDevices=yes is set for a service the CAP_SYS_RAWIO
+          capability is now also dropped from its set (in addition to
+          CAP_SYS_MKNOD as before).
+        * In service unit files it is now possible to connect a specific named
+          file descriptor with stdin/stdout/stdout of an executed service. The
+          name may be specified in matching .socket units using the
+          FileDescriptorName= setting.
+        * A number of journal settings may now be configured on the kernel
+          command line. Specifically, the following options are now understood:
+          systemd.journald.max_level_console=,
+          systemd.journald.max_level_store=,
+          systemd.journald.max_level_syslog=, systemd.journald.max_level_kmsg=,
+          systemd.journald.max_level_wall=.
+        * "systemctl is-enabled --full" will now show by which symlinks a unit
+          file is enabled in the unit dependency tree.
+        * Support for VeraCrypt encrypted partitions has been added to the
+          "cryptsetup" logic and /etc/crypttab.
+        * systemd-detect-virt gained support for a new --private-users switch
+          that checks whether the invoking processes are running inside a user
+          namespace. Similar, a new special value "private-users" for the
+          existing ConditionVirtualization= setting has been added, permitting
+          skipping of specific units in user namespace environments.
+        Contributions from: Alban Crequy, Alexander Kuleshov, Alfie John,
+        Andreas Henriksson, Andrew Jeddeloh, Balázs Úr, Bart Rulon, Benjamin
+        Richter, Ben Gamari, Ben Harris, Brian J. Murrell, Christian Brauner,
+        Christian Rebischke, Clinton Roy, Colin Walters, Cristian Rodríguez,
+        Daniel Hahler, Daniel Mack, Daniel Maixner, Daniel Rusek, Dan Dedrick,
+        Davide Cavalca, David Herrmann, David Michael, Dennis Wassenberg,
+        Djalal Harouni, Dongsu Park, Douglas Christman, Elias Probst, Eric
+        Cook, Erik Karlsson, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Felipe Sateler, Felix Zhang,
+        Franck Bui, George Hilliard, Giuseppe Scrivano, HATAYAMA Daisuke,
+        Heikki Kemppainen, Hendrik Brueckner, hi117, Ismo Puustinen, Ivan
+        Shapovalov, Jakub Filak, Jakub Wilk, Jan Synacek, Jason Kölker,
+        Jean-Sébastien Bour, Jiří Pírko, Jonathan Boulle, Jorge Niedbalski,
+        Keith Busch, kristbaum, Kyle Russell, Lans Zhang, Lennart Poettering,
+        Leonardo Brondani Schenkel, Lucas Werkmeister, Luca Bruno, Lukáš
+        Nykrýn, Maciek Borzecki, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marc-Antoine Perennou,
+        Marcel Holtmann, Marcos Mello, Martin Ejdestig, Martin Pitt, Matej
+        Habrnal, Maxime de Roucy, Michael Biebl, Michael Chapman, Michael Hoy,
+        Michael Olbrich, Michael Pope, Michal Sekletar, Michal Soltys, Mike
+        Gilbert, Nick Owens, Patrik Flykt, Paweł Szewczyk, Peter Hutterer,
+        Piotr Drąg, Reid Price, Richard W.M. Jones, Roman Stingler, Ronny
+        Chevalier, Seraphime Kirkovski, Stefan Schweter, Steve Muir, Susant
+        Sahani, Tejun Heo, Thomas Blume, Thomas H. P. Andersen, Tiago Levit,
+        Tobias Jungel, Tomáš Janoušek, Topi Miettinen, Torstein Husebø, Umut
+        Tezduyar Lindskog, Vito Caputo, WaLyong Cho, Wilhelm Schuster, Yann
+        E. MORIN, Yi EungJun, Yuki Inoguchi, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew
+        Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Zeal Jagannatha
+        — Santa Fe, 2016-11-03
+        * In service units the various ExecXYZ= settings have been extended
+          with an additional special character as first argument of the
+          assigned value: if the character '+' is used the specified command
+          line it will be run with full privileges, regardless of User=,
+          Group=, CapabilityBoundingSet= and similar options. The effect is
+          similar to the existing PermissionsStartOnly= option, but allows
+          configuration of this concept for each executed command line
+          independently.
+        * Services may now alter the service watchdog timeout at runtime by
+          sending a WATCHDOG_USEC= message via sd_notify().
+        * MemoryLimit= and related unit settings now optionally take percentage
+          specifications. The percentage is taken relative to the amount of
+          physical memory in the system (or in case of containers, the assigned
+          amount of memory). This allows scaling service resources neatly with
+          the amount of RAM available on the system. Similarly, systemd-logind's
+          RuntimeDirectorySize= option now also optionally takes percentage
+          values.
+        * In similar fashion TasksMax= takes percentage values now, too. The
+          value is taken relative to the configured maximum number of processes
+          on the system. The per-service task maximum has been changed to 15%
+          using this functionality. (Effectively this is an increase of 512 →
+          4915 for service units, given the kernel's default pid_max setting.)
+        * Calendar time specifications in .timer units now understand a ".."
+          syntax for time ranges. Example: "4..7:10" may now be used for
+          defining a timer that is triggered at 4:10am, 5:10am, 6:10am and
+          7:10am every day.
+        * The InaccessableDirectories=, ReadOnlyDirectories= and
+          ReadWriteDirectories= unit file settings have been renamed to
+          InaccessablePaths=, ReadOnlyPaths= and ReadWritePaths= and may now be
+          applied to all kinds of file nodes, and not just directories, with
+          the exception of symlinks. Specifically these settings may now be
+          used on block and character device nodes, UNIX sockets and FIFOS as
+          well as regular files. The old names of these settings remain
+          available for compatibility.
+        * systemd will now log about all service processes it kills forcibly
+          (using SIGKILL) because they remained after the clean shutdown phase
+          of the service completed. This should help identifying services that
+          shut down uncleanly. Moreover if KillUserProcesses= is enabled in
+          systemd-logind's configuration a similar log message is generated for
+          processes killed at the end of each session due to this setting.
+        * systemd will now set the $JOURNAL_STREAM environment variable for all
+          services whose stdout/stderr are connected to the Journal (which
+          effectively means by default: all services). The variable contains
+          the device and inode number of the file descriptor used for
+          stdout/stderr. This may be used by invoked programs to detect whether
+          their stdout/stderr is connected to the Journal, in which case they
+          can switch over to direct Journal communication, thus being able to
+          pass extended, structured metadata along with their log messages. As
+          one example, this is now used by glib's logging primitives.
+        * When using systemd's default tmp.mount unit for /tmp, the mount point
+          will now be established with the "nosuid" and "nodev" options. This
+          avoids privilege escalation attacks that put traps and exploits into
+          /tmp.  However, this might cause problems if you e. g. put container
+          images or overlays into /tmp; if you need this, override tmp.mount's
+          "Options=" with a drop-in, or mount /tmp from /etc/fstab with your
+          desired options.
+        * systemd now supports the "memory" cgroup controller also on
+          cgroup v2.
+        * The systemd-cgtop tool now optionally takes a control group path as
+          command line argument. If specified, the control group list shown is
+          limited to subgroups of that group.
+        * The SystemCallFilter= unit file setting gained support for
+          pre-defined, named system call filter sets. For example
+          SystemCallFilter=@clock is now an effective way to make all clock
+          changing-related system calls unavailable to a service. A number of
+          similar pre-defined groups are defined. Writing system call filters
+          for system services is simplified substantially with this new
+          concept. Accordingly, all of systemd's own, long-running services now
+          enable system call filtering based on this, by default.
+        * A new service setting MemoryDenyWriteExecute= has been added, taking
+          a boolean value. If turned on, a service may no longer create memory
+          mappings that are writable and executable at the same time. This
+          enhances security for services where this is enabled as it becomes
+          harder to dynamically write and then execute memory in exploited
+          service processes. This option has been enabled for all of systemd's
+          own long-running services.
+        * A new RestrictRealtime= service setting has been added, taking a
+          boolean argument. If set the service's processes may no longer
+          acquire realtime scheduling. This improves security as realtime
+          scheduling may otherwise be used to easily freeze the system.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new switch --notify-ready= taking a boolean
+          value. This may be used for requesting that the system manager inside
+          of the container reports start-up completion to nspawn which then
+          propagates this notification further to the service manager
+          supervising nspawn itself. A related option NotifyReady= in .nspawn
+          files has been added too. This functionality allows ordering of the
+          start-up of multiple containers using the usual systemd ordering
+          primitives.
+        * machinectl gained a new command "stop" that is an alias for
+          "terminate".
+        * systemd-resolved gained support for contacting DNS servers on
+          link-local IPv6 addresses.
+        * If systemd-resolved receives the SIGUSR2 signal it will now flush all
+          its caches. A method call for requesting the same operation has been
+          added to the bus API too, and is made available via "systemd-resolve
+          --flush-caches".
+        * systemd-resolve gained a new --status switch. If passed a brief
+          summary of the used DNS configuration with per-interface information
+          is shown.
+        * resolved.conf gained a new Cache= boolean option, defaulting to
+          on. If turned off local DNS caching is disabled. This comes with a
+          performance penalty in particular when DNSSEC is enabled. Note that
+          resolved disables its internal caching implicitly anyway, when the
+          configured DNS server is on a host-local IP address such as ::1 or
+, thus automatically avoiding double local caching.
+        * systemd-resolved now listens on the local IP address
+          for DNS requests. This improves compatibility with local programs
+          that do not use the libc NSS or systemd-resolved's bus APIs for name
+          resolution. This minimal DNS service is only available to local
+          programs and does not implement the full DNS protocol, but enough to
+          cover local DNS clients. A new, static resolv.conf file, listing just
+          this DNS server is now shipped in /usr/lib/systemd/resolv.conf. It is
+          now recommended to make /etc/resolv.conf a symlink to this file in
+          order to route all DNS lookups to systemd-resolved, regardless if
+          done via NSS, the bus API or raw DNS packets. Note that this local
+          DNS service is not as fully featured as the libc NSS or
+          systemd-resolved's bus APIs. For example, as unicast DNS cannot be
+          used to deliver link-local address information (as this implies
+          sending a local interface index along), LLMNR/mDNS support via this
+          interface is severely restricted. It is thus strongly recommended for
+          all applications to use the libc NSS API or native systemd-resolved
+          bus API instead.
+        * systemd-networkd's bridge support learned a new setting
+          VLANFiltering= for controlling VLAN filtering. Moreover a new section
+          in .network files has been added for configuring VLAN bridging in
+          more detail: VLAN=, EgressUntagged=, PVID= in [BridgeVLAN].
+        * systemd-networkd's IPv6 Router Advertisement code now makes use of
+          the DNSSL and RDNSS options. This means IPv6 DNS configuration may
+          now be acquired without relying on DHCPv6. Two new options
+          UseDomains= and UseDNS= have been added to configure this behaviour.
+        * systemd-networkd's IPv6AcceptRouterAdvertisements= option has been
+          renamed IPv6AcceptRA=, without altering its behaviour. The old
+          setting name remains available for compatibility reasons.
+        * The systemd-networkd VTI/VTI6 tunneling support gained new options
+          Key=, InputKey= and OutputKey=.
+        * systemd-networkd gained support for VRF ("Virtual Routing Function")
+          interface configuration.
+        * "systemctl edit" may now be used to create new unit files by
+          specifying the --force switch.
+        * sd-event gained a new function sd_event_get_iteration() for
+          requesting the current iteration counter of the event loop. It starts
+          at zero and is increased by one with each event loop iteration.
+        * A new rpm macro %systemd_ordering is provided by the macros.systemd
+          file. It can be used in lieu of %systemd_requires in packages which
+          don't use any systemd functionality and are intended to be installed
+          in minimal containers without systemd present. This macro provides
+          ordering dependencies to ensure that if the package is installed in
+          the same rpm transaction as systemd, systemd will be installed before
+          the scriptlets for the package are executed, allowing unit presets
+          to be handled.
+          New macros %_systemdgeneratordir and %_systemdusergeneratordir have
+          been added to simplify packaging of generators.
+        * The os-release file gained VERSION_CODENAME field for the
+          distribution nickname (e.g. VERSION_CODENAME=woody).
+          can be set to disable parsing of metadata and the creation
+          of persistent symlinks for that device.
+        * The v230 change to tag framebuffer devices (/dev/fb*) with "uaccess"
+          to make them available to logged-in users has been reverted.
+        * Much of the common code of the various systemd components is now
+          built into an internal shared library
+          (incorporating the systemd version number in the name, to be updated
+          with future releases) that the components link to. This should
+          decrease systemd footprint both in memory during runtime and on
+          disk. Note that the shared library is not for public use, and is
+          neither API nor ABI stable, but is likely to change with every new
+          released update. Packagers need to make sure that binaries
+          linking to are updated in step with the
+          library.
+        * Configuration for "mkosi" is now part of the systemd
+          repository. mkosi is a tool to easily build legacy-free OS images,
+          and is available on github: If
+          "mkosi" is invoked in the build tree a new raw OS image is generated
+          incorporating the systemd sources currently being worked on and a
+          clean, fresh distribution installation. The generated OS image may be
+          booted up with "systemd-nspawn -b -i", qemu-kvm or on any physical
+          UEFI PC. This functionality is particularly useful to easily test
+          local changes made to systemd in a pristine, defined environment. See
+          doc/HACKING for details.
+        * configure learned the --with-support-url= option to specify the
+          distribution's bugtracker.
+        Contributions from: Alban Crequy, Alessandro Puccetti, Alessio Igor
+        Bogani, Alexander Kuleshov, Alexander Kurtz, Alex Gaynor, Andika
+        Triwidada, Andreas Pokorny, Andreas Rammhold, Andrew Jeddeloh, Ansgar
+        Burchardt, Atrotors, Benjamin Drung, Brian Boylston, Christian Hesse,
+        Christian Rebischke, Daniele Medri, Daniel Mack, Dave Reisner, David
+        Herrmann, David Michael, Djalal Harouni, Douglas Christman, Elias
+        Probst, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Federico Mena Quintero, Felipe Sateler,
+        Franck Bui, Harald Hoyer, Ian Lee, Ivan Shapovalov, Jakub Wilk, Jan
+        Janssen, Jean-Sébastien Bour, John Paul Adrian Glaubitz, Jouke
+        Witteveen, Kai Ruhnau, kpengboy, Kyle Walker, Lénaïc Huard, Lennart
+        Poettering, Luca Bruno, Lukas Lösche, Lukáš Nykrýn, mahkoh, Marcel
+        Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Marty Plummer, Matthieu Codron, Max Prokhorov,
+        Michael Biebl, Michael Karcher, Michael Olbrich, Michał Bartoszkiewicz,
+        Michal Sekletar, Michal Soltys, Minkyung, Muhammet Kara, mulkieran,
+        Otto Wallenius, Pablo Lezaeta Reyes, Peter Hutterer, Ronny Chevalier,
+        Rusty Bird, Stef Walter, Susant Sahani, Tejun Heo, Thomas Blume, Thomas
+        Haller, Thomas H. P. Andersen, Tobias Jungel, Tom Gundersen, Tom Yan,
+        Topi Miettinen, Torstein Husebø, Valentin Vidić, Viktar Vaŭčkievič,
+        WaLyong Cho, Weng Xuetian, Werner Fink, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2016-07-25
+        * DNSSEC is now turned on by default in systemd-resolved (in
+          "allow-downgrade" mode), but may be turned off during compile time by
+          passing "--with-default-dnssec=no" to "configure" (and of course,
+          during runtime with DNSSEC= in resolved.conf). We recommend
+          downstreams to leave this on at least during development cycles and
+          report any issues with the DNSSEC logic upstream. We are very
+          interested in collecting feedback about the DNSSEC validator and its
+          limitations in the wild. Note however, that DNSSEC support is
+          probably nothing downstreams should turn on in stable distros just
+          yet, as it might create incompatibilities with a few DNS servers and
+          networks. We tried hard to make sure we downgrade to non-DNSSEC mode
+          automatically whenever we detect such incompatible setups, but there
+          might be systems we do not cover yet. Hence: please help us testing
+          the DNSSEC code, leave this on where you can, report back, but then
+          again don't consider turning this on in your stable, LTS or
+          production release just yet. (Note that you have to enable
+          nss-resolve in /etc/nsswitch.conf, to actually use systemd-resolved
+          and its DNSSEC mode for hostname resolution from local
+          applications.)
+        * systemd-resolve conveniently resolves DANE records with the --tlsa
+          option and OPENPGPKEY records with the --openpgp option. It also
+          supports dumping raw DNS record data via the new --raw= switch.
+        * systemd-logind will now by default terminate user processes that are
+          part of the user session scope unit (session-XX.scope) when the user
+          logs out. This behavior is controlled by the KillUserProcesses=
+          setting in logind.conf, and the previous default of "no" is now
+          changed to "yes". This means that user sessions will be properly
+          cleaned up after, but additional steps are necessary to allow
+          intentionally long-running processes to survive logout.
+          While the user is logged in at least once, user@.service is running,
+          and any service that should survive the end of any individual login
+          session can be started at a user service or scope using systemd-run.
+          systemd-run(1) man page has been extended with an example which shows
+          how to run screen in a scope unit underneath user@.service. The same
+          command works for tmux.
+          After the user logs out of all sessions, user@.service will be
+          terminated too, by default, unless the user has "lingering" enabled.
+          To effectively allow users to run long-term tasks even if they are
+          logged out, lingering must be enabled for them. See loginctl(1) for
+          details. The default polkit policy was modified to allow users to
+          set lingering for themselves without authentication.
+          Previous defaults can be restored at compile time by the
+          --without-kill-user-processes option to "configure".
+        * systemd-logind gained new configuration settings SessionsMax= and
+          InhibitorsMax=, both with a default of 8192. It will not register new
+          user sessions or inhibitors above this limit.
+        * systemd-logind will now reload configuration on SIGHUP.
+        * The unified cgroup hierarchy added in Linux 4.5 is now supported.
+          Use systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy=1 on the kernel command line to
+          enable. Also, support for the "io" cgroup controller in the unified
+          hierarchy has been added, so that the "memory", "pids" and "io" are
+          now the controllers that are supported on the unified hierarchy.
+          WARNING: it is not possible to use previous systemd versions with
+          systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy=1 and the new kernel. Therefore it
+          is necessary to also update systemd in the initramfs if using the
+          unified hierarchy. An updated SELinux policy is also required.
+        * LLDP support has been extended, and both passive (receive-only) and
+          active (sender) modes are supported. Passive mode ("routers-only") is
+          enabled by default in systemd-networkd. Active LLDP mode is enabled
+          by default for containers on the internal network. The "networkctl
+          lldp" command may be used to list information gathered. "networkctl
+          status" will also show basic LLDP information on connected peers now.
+        * The IAID and DUID unique identifier sent in DHCP requests may now be
+          configured for the system and each .network file managed by
+          systemd-networkd using the DUIDType=, DUIDRawData=, IAID= options.
+        * systemd-networkd gained support for configuring proxy ARP support for
+          each interface, via the ProxyArp= setting in .network files. It also
+          gained support for configuring the multicast querier feature of
+          bridge devices, via the new MulticastQuerier= setting in .netdev
+          files. Similarly, snooping on the IGMP traffic can be controlled
+          via the new setting MulticastSnooping=.
+          A new setting PreferredLifetime= has been added for addresses
+          configured in .network file to configure the lifetime intended for an
+          address.
+          The systemd-networkd DHCP server gained the option EmitRouter=, which
+          defaults to yes, to configure whether the DHCP Option 3 (Router)
+          should be emitted.
+        * The testing tool /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-activate is renamed to
+          systemd-socket-activate and installed into /usr/bin. It is now fully
+          supported.
+        * systemd-journald now uses separate threads to flush changes to disk
+          when closing journal files, thus reducing impact of slow disk I/O on
+          logging performance.
+        * The sd-journal API gained two new calls
+          sd_journal_open_directory_fd() and sd_journal_open_files_fd() which
+          can be used to open journal files using file descriptors instead of
+          file or directory paths. sd_journal_open_container() has been
+          deprecated, sd_journal_open_directory_fd() should be used instead
+          with the flag SD_JOURNAL_OS_ROOT.
+        * journalctl learned a new output mode "-o short-unix" that outputs log
+          lines prefixed by their UNIX time (i.e. seconds since Jan 1st, 1970
+          UTC). It also gained support for a new --no-hostname setting to
+          suppress the hostname column in the family of "short" output modes.
+        * systemd-ask-password now optionally skips printing of the password to
+          stdout with --no-output which can be useful in scripts.
+        * Framebuffer devices (/dev/fb*) and 3D printers and scanners
+          (devices tagged with ID_MAKER_TOOL) are now tagged with
+          "uaccess" and are available to logged in users.
+        * The DeviceAllow= unit setting now supports specifiers (with "%").
+        * "systemctl show" gained a new --value switch, which allows print a
+          only the contents of a specific unit property, without also printing
+          the property's name. Similar support was added to "show*" verbs
+          of loginctl and machinectl that output "key=value" lists.
+        * A new unit type "generated" was added for files dynamically generated
+          by generator tools. Similarly, a new unit type "transient" is used
+          for unit files created using the runtime API. "systemctl enable" will
+          refuse to operate on such files.
+        * A new command "systemctl revert" has been added that may be used to
+          revert to the vendor version of a unit file, in case local changes
+          have been made by adding drop-ins or overriding the unit file.
+        * "machinectl clean" gained a new verb to automatically remove all or
+          just hidden container images.
+        * systemd-tmpfiles gained support for a new line type "e" for emptying
+          directories, if they exist, without creating them if they don't.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained support for automatically patching the UID/GIDs
+          of the owners and the ACLs of all files and directories in a
+          container tree to match the UID/GID user namespacing range selected
+          for the container invocation. This mode is enabled via the new
+          --private-users-chown switch. It also gained support for
+          automatically choosing a free, previously unused UID/GID range when
+          starting a container, via the new --private-users=pick setting (which
+          implies --private-users-chown). Together, these options for the first
+          time make user namespacing for nspawn containers fully automatic and
+          thus deployable. The systemd-nspawn@.service template unit file has
+          been changed to use this functionality by default.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --network-zone= switch, that allows
+          creating ad-hoc virtual Ethernet links between multiple containers,
+          that only exist as long as at least one container referencing them is
+          running. This allows easy connecting of multiple containers with a
+          common link that implements an Ethernet broadcast domain. Each of
+          these network "zones" may be named relatively freely by the user, and
+          may be referenced by any number of containers, but each container may
+          only reference one of these "zones". On the lower level, this is
+          implemented by an automatically managed bridge network interface for
+          each zone, that is created when the first container referencing its
+          zone is created and removed when the last one referencing its zone
+          terminates.
+        * The default start timeout may now be configured on the kernel command
+          line via systemd.default_timeout_start_sec=. It was already
+          configurable via the DefaultTimeoutStartSec= option in
+          /etc/systemd/system.conf.
+        * Socket units gained a new TriggerLimitIntervalSec= and
+          TriggerLimitBurst= setting to configure a limit on the activation
+          rate of the socket unit.
+        * The LimitNICE= setting now optionally takes normal UNIX nice values
+          in addition to the raw integer limit value. If the specified
+          parameter is prefixed with "+" or "-" and is in the range -20…19 the
+          value is understood as UNIX nice value. If not prefixed like this it
+          is understood as raw RLIMIT_NICE limit.
+        * Note that the effect of the PrivateDevices= unit file setting changed
+          slightly with this release: the per-device /dev file system will be
+          mounted read-only from this version on, and will have "noexec"
+          set. This (minor) change of behavior might cause some (exceptional)
+          legacy software to break, when PrivateDevices=yes is set for its
+          service. Please leave PrivateDevices= off if you run into problems
+          with this.
+        * systemd-bootchart has been split out to a separate repository:
+        * systemd-bus-proxyd has been removed, as kdbus is unlikely to still be
+          merged into the kernel in its current form.
+        * The compatibility libraries,
+,, and
+          which have been deprecated since systemd-209 have been removed along
+          with the corresponding pkg-config files. All symbols provided by
+          those libraries are provided by
+        * The Capabilities= unit file setting has been removed (it is ignored
+          for backwards compatibility). AmbientCapabilities= and
+          CapabilityBoundingSet= should be used instead.
+        * A new special target has been added,,
+          which creates a synchronization point for dependencies of the root
+          device in early userspace. Initramfs builders must ensure that this
+          target is now included in early userspace.
+        Contributions from: Alban Crequy, Alexander Kuleshov, Alexander Shopov,
+        Alex Crawford, Andre Klärner, Andrew Eikum, Beniamino Galvani, Benjamin
+        Robin, Biao Lu, Bjørnar Ness, Calvin Owens, Christian Hesse, Clemens
+        Gruber, Colin Guthrie, Daniel Drake, Daniele Medri, Daniel J Walsh,
+        Daniel Mack, Dan Nicholson, daurnimator, David Herrmann, David
+        R. Hedges, Elias Probst, Emmanuel Gil Peyrot, EMOziko, Evgeny
+        Vereshchagin, Federico, Felipe Sateler, Filipe Brandenburger, Franck
+        Bui, frankheckenbach, gdamjan, Georgia Brikis, Harald Hoyer, Hendrik
+        Brueckner, Hristo Venev, Iago López Galeiras, Ian Kelling, Ismo
+        Puustinen, Jakub Wilk, Jaroslav Škarvada, Jeff Huang, Joel Holdsworth,
+        John Paul Adrian Glaubitz, Jonathan Boulle, kayrus, Klearchos
+        Chaloulos, Kyle Russell, Lars Uebernickel, Lennart Poettering, Lubomir
+        Rintel, Lukáš Nykrýn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel Holtmann, Martin Pitt,
+        Michael Biebl, michaelolbrich, Michał Bartoszkiewicz, Michal Koutný,
+        Michal Sekletar, Mike Frysinger, Mike Gilbert, Mingcong Bai, Ming Lin,
+        mulkieran, muzena, Nalin Dahyabhai, Naohiro Aota, Nathan McSween,
+        Nicolas Braud-Santoni, Patrik Flykt, Peter Hutterer, Peter Mattern,
+        Petr Lautrbach, Petros Angelatos, Piotr Drąg, Rabin Vincent, Robert
+        Węcławski, Ronny Chevalier, Samuel Tardieu, Stefan Saraev, Stefan
+        Schallenberg aka nafets227, Steven Siloti, Susant Sahani, Sylvain
+        Plantefève, Taylor Smock, Tejun Heo, Thomas Blume, Thomas Haller,
+        Thomas H. P. Andersen, Tobias Klauser, Tom Gundersen, topimiettinen,
+        Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Uwe Kleine-König, Victor Toso,
+        Vinay Kulkarni, Vito Caputo, Vittorio G (VittGam), Vladimir Panteleev,
+        Wieland Hoffmann, Wouter Verhelst, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew
+        Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Fairfax, 2016-05-21
+        * The systemd-resolved DNS resolver service has gained a substantial
+          set of new features, most prominently it may now act as a DNSSEC
+          validating stub resolver. DNSSEC mode is currently turned off by
+          default, but is expected to be turned on by default in one of the
+          next releases. For now, we invite everybody to test the DNSSEC logic
+          by setting DNSSEC=allow-downgrade in /etc/systemd/resolved.conf. The
+          service also gained a full set of D-Bus interfaces, including calls
+          to configure DNS and DNSSEC settings per link (for use by external
+          network management software). systemd-resolved and systemd-networkd
+          now distinguish between "search" and "routing" domains. The former
+          are used to qualify single-label names, the latter are used purely
+          for routing lookups within certain domains to specific links.
+          resolved now also synthesizes RRs for all entries from /etc/hosts.
+        * The systemd-resolve tool (which is a client utility for
+          systemd-resolved) has been improved considerably and is now fully
+          supported and documented. Hence it has moved from /usr/lib/systemd to
+          /usr/bin.
+        * /dev/disk/by-path/ symlink support has been (re-)added for virtio
+          devices.
+        * The coredump collection logic has been reworked: when a coredump is
+          collected it is now written to disk, compressed and processed
+          (including stacktrace extraction) from a new instantiated service
+          systemd-coredump@.service, instead of directly from the
+          /proc/sys/kernel/core_pattern hook we provide. This is beneficial as
+          processing large coredumps can take up a substantial amount of
+          resources and time, and this previously happened entirely outside of
+          systemd's service supervision. With the new logic the core_pattern
+          hook only does minimal metadata collection before passing off control
+          to the new instantiated service, which is configured with a time
+          limit, a nice level and other settings to minimize negative impact on
+          the rest of the system. Also note that the new logic will honour the
+          RLIMIT_CORE setting of the crashed process, which now allows users
+          and processes to turn off coredumping for their processes by setting
+          this limit.
+        * The RLIMIT_CORE resource limit now defaults to "unlimited" for PID 1
+          and all forked processes by default. Previously, PID 1 would leave
+          the setting at "0" for all processes, as set by the kernel. Note that
+          the resource limit traditionally has no effect on the generated
+          coredumps on the system if the /proc/sys/kernel/core_pattern hook
+          logic is used. Since the limit is now honoured (see above) its
+          default has been changed so that the coredumping logic is enabled by
+          default for all processes, while allowing specific opt-out.
+        * When the stacktrace is extracted from processes of system users, this
+          is now done as "systemd-coredump" user, in order to sandbox this
+          potentially security sensitive parsing operation. (Note that when
+          processing coredumps of normal users this is done under the user ID
+          of process that crashed, as before.) Packagers should take notice
+          that it is now necessary to create the "systemd-coredump" system user
+          and group at package installation time.
+        * The systemd-activate socket activation testing tool gained support
+          for SOCK_DGRAM and SOCK_SEQPACKET sockets using the new --datagram
+          and --seqpacket switches. It also has been extended to support both
+          new-style and inetd-style file descriptor passing. Use the new
+          --inetd switch to request inetd-style file descriptor passing.
+        * Most systemd tools now honor a new $SYSTEMD_COLORS environment
+          variable, which takes a boolean value. If set to false, ANSI color
+          output is disabled in the tools even when run on a terminal that
+          supports it.
+        * The VXLAN support in networkd now supports two new settings
+          DestinationPort= and PortRange=.
+        * A new systemd.machine_id= kernel command line switch has been added,
+          that may be used to set the machine ID in /etc/machine-id if it is
+          not initialized yet. This command line option has no effect if the
+          file is already initialized.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --as-pid2 switch that invokes any
+          specified command line as PID 2 rather than PID 1 in the
+          container. In this mode PID 1 is a minimal stub init process that
+          implements the special POSIX and Linux semantics of PID 1 regarding
+          signal and child process management. Note that this stub init process
+          is implemented in nspawn itself and requires no support from the
+          container image. This new logic is useful to support running
+          arbitrary commands in the container, as normal processes are
+          generally not prepared to run as PID 1.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --chdir= switch for setting the current
+          working directory for the process started in the container.
+        * "journalctl /dev/sda" will now output all kernel log messages for
+          specified device from the current boot, in addition to all devices
+          that are parents of it. This should make log output about devices
+          pretty useful, as long as kernel drivers attach enough metadata to
+          the log messages. (The usual SATA drivers do.)
+        * The sd-journal API gained two new calls
+          sd_journal_has_runtime_files() and sd_journal_has_persistent_files()
+          that report whether log data from /run or /var has been found.
+        * journalctl gained a new switch "--fields" that prints all journal
+          record field names currently in use in the journal.  This is backed
+          by two new sd-journal API calls sd_journal_enumerate_fields() and
+          sd_journal_restart_fields().
+        * Most configurable timeouts in systemd now expect an argument of
+          "infinity" to turn them off, instead of "0" as before. The semantics
+          from now on is that a timeout of "0" means "now", and "infinity"
+          means "never". To maintain backwards compatibility, "0" continues to
+          turn off previously existing timeout settings.
+        * "systemctl reload-or-try-restart" has been renamed to "systemctl
+          try-reload-or-restart" to clarify what it actually does: the "try"
+          logic applies to both reloading and restarting, not just restarting.
+          The old name continues to be accepted for compatibility.
+        * On boot-up, when PID 1 detects that the system clock is behind the
+          release date of the systemd version in use, the clock is now set
+          to the latter. Previously, this was already done in timesyncd, in order
+          to avoid running with clocks set to the various clock epochs such as
+          1902, 1938 or 1970. With this change the logic is now done in PID 1
+          in addition to timesyncd during early boot-up, so that it is enforced
+          before the first process is spawned by systemd. Note that the logic
+          in timesyncd remains, as it is more comprehensive and ensures
+          clock monotonicity by maintaining a persistent timestamp file in
+          /var. Since /var is generally not available in earliest boot or the
+          initrd, this part of the logic remains in timesyncd, and is not done
+          by PID 1.
+        * Support for tweaking details in net_cls.class_id through the
+          NetClass= configuration directive has been removed, as the kernel
+          people have decided to deprecate that controller in cgroup v2.
+          Userspace tools such as nftables are moving over to setting rules
+          that are specific to the full cgroup path of a task, which obsoletes
+          these controllers anyway. The NetClass= directive is kept around for
+          legacy compatibility reasons. For a more in-depth description of the
+          kernel change, please refer to the respective upstream commit:
+        * A new service setting RuntimeMaxSec= has been added that may be used
+          to specify a maximum runtime for a service. If the timeout is hit, the
+          service is terminated and put into a failure state.
+        * A new service setting AmbientCapabilities= has been added. It allows
+          configuration of additional Linux process capabilities that are
+          passed to the activated processes. This is only available on very
+          recent kernels.
+        * The process resource limit settings in service units may now be used
+          to configure hard and soft limits individually.
+        * The various libsystemd APIs such as sd-bus or sd-event now publicly
+          expose support for gcc's __attribute__((cleanup())) C extension.
+          Specifically, for many object destructor functions alternative
+          versions have been added that have names suffixed with "p" and take a
+          pointer to a pointer to the object to destroy, instead of just a
+          pointer to the object itself. This is useful because these destructor
+          functions may be used directly as parameters to the cleanup
+          construct. Internally, systemd has been a heavy user of this GCC
+          extension for a long time, and with this change similar support is
+          now available to consumers of the library outside of systemd. Note
+          that by using this extension in your sources compatibility with old
+          and strictly ANSI compatible C compilers is lost. However, all gcc or
+          LLVM versions of recent years support this extension.
+        * Timer units gained support for a new setting RandomizedDelaySec= that
+          allows configuring some additional randomized delay to the configured
+          time. This is useful to spread out timer events to avoid load peaks in
+          clusters or larger setups.
+        * Calendar time specifications now support sub-second accuracy.
+        * Socket units now support listening on SCTP and UDP-lite protocol
+          sockets.
+        * The sd-event API now comes with a full set of man pages.
+        * Older versions of systemd contained experimental support for
+          compressing journal files and coredumps with the LZ4 compressor that
+          was not compatible with the lz4 binary (due to API limitations of the
+          lz4 library). This support has been removed; only support for files
+          compatible with the lz4 binary remains. This LZ4 logic is now
+          officially supported and no longer considered experimental.
+        * The dkr image import logic has been removed again from importd. dkr's
+          micro-services focus doesn't fit into the machine image focus of
+          importd, and quickly got out of date with the upstream dkr API.
+        * Creation of the /run/lock/lockdev/ directory was dropped from
+          tmpfiles.d/legacy.conf. Better locking mechanisms like flock() have
+          been available for many years. If you still need this, you need to
+          create your own tmpfiles.d config file with:
+                  d /run/lock/lockdev 0775 root lock -
+        * The settings StartLimitBurst=, StartLimitInterval=, StartLimitAction=
+          and RebootArgument= have been moved from the [Service] section of
+          unit files to [Unit], and they are now supported on all unit types,
+          not just service units. Of course, systemd will continue to
+          understand these settings also at the old location, in order to
+          maintain compatibility.
+        Contributions from: Abdo Roig-Maranges, Alban Crequy, Aleksander
+        Adamowski, Alexander Kuleshov, Andreas Pokorny, Andrei Borzenkov,
+        Andrew Wilcox, Arthur Clement, Beniamino Galvani, Casey Schaufler,
+        Chris Atkinson, Chris Mayo, Christian Hesse, Damjan Georgievski, Dan
+        Dedrick, Daniele Medri, Daniel J Walsh, Daniel Korostil, Daniel Mack,
+        David Herrmann, Dimitri John Ledkov, Dominik Hannen, Douglas Christman,
+        Evgeny Vereshchagin, Filipe Brandenburger, Franck Bui, Gabor Kelemen,
+        Harald Hoyer, Hayden Walles, Helmut Grohne, Henrik Kaare Poulsen,
+        Hristo Venev, Hui Wang, Indrajit Raychaudhuri, Ismo Puustinen, Jakub
+        Wilk, Jan Alexander Steffens (heftig), Jan Engelhardt, Jan Synacek,
+        Joost Bremmer, Jorgen Schaefer, Karel Zak, Klearchos Chaloulos,
+        lc85446, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel
+        Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Olbrich, Michael Scherer,
+        Michał Górny, Michal Sekletar, Nicolas Cornu, Nicolas Iooss, Nils
+        Carlson, nmartensen, nnz1024, Patrick Ohly, Peter Hutterer, Phillip Sz,
+        Ronny Chevalier, Samu Kallio, Shawn Landden, Stef Walter, Susant
+        Sahani, Sylvain Plantefève, Tadej Janež, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel
+        Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Vito
+        Caputo, WaLyong Cho, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2016-02-11
+        * A number of properties previously only settable in unit
+          files are now also available as properties to set when
+          creating transient units programmatically via the bus, as it
+          is exposed with systemd-run's --property=
+          setting. Specifically, these are: SyslogIdentifier=,
+          SyslogLevelPrefix=, TimerSlackNSec=, OOMScoreAdjust=,
+          EnvironmentFile=, ReadWriteDirectories=,
+          ReadOnlyDirectories=, InaccessibleDirectories=,
+          ProtectSystem=, ProtectHome=, RuntimeDirectory=.
+        * When creating transient services via the bus API it is now
+          possible to pass in a set of file descriptors to use as
+          STDIN/STDOUT/STDERR for the invoked process.
+        * Slice units may now be created transiently via the bus APIs,
+          similar to the way service and scope units may already be
+          created transiently.
+        * Wherever systemd expects a calendar timestamp specification
+          (like in journalctl's --since= and --until= switches) UTC
+          timestamps are now supported. Timestamps suffixed with "UTC"
+          are now considered to be in Universal Time Coordinated
+          instead of the local timezone. Also, timestamps may now
+          optionally be specified with sub-second accuracy. Both of
+          these additions also apply to recurring calendar event
+          specification, such as OnCalendar= in timer units.
+        * journalctl gained a new "--sync" switch that asks the
+          journal daemon to write all so far unwritten log messages to
+          disk and sync the files, before returning.
+        * systemd-tmpfiles learned two new line types "q" and "Q" that
+          operate like "v", but also set up a basic btrfs quota
+          hierarchy when used on a btrfs file system with quota
+          enabled.
+        * tmpfiles' "v", "q" and "Q" will now create a plain directory
+          instead of a subvolume (even on a btrfs file system) if the
+          root directory is a plain directory, and not a
+          subvolume. This should simplify things with certain chroot()
+          environments which are not aware of the concept of btrfs
+          subvolumes.
+        * systemd-detect-virt gained a new --chroot switch to detect
+          whether execution takes place in a chroot() environment.
+        * CPUAffinity= now takes CPU index ranges in addition to
+          individual indexes.
+        * The various memory-related resource limit settings (such as
+          LimitAS=) now understand the usual K, M, G, … suffixes to
+          the base of 1024 (IEC). Similar, the time-related resource
+          limit settings understand the usual min, h, day, … suffixes
+          now.
+        * There's a new system.conf setting DefaultTasksMax= to
+          control the default TasksMax= setting for services and
+          scopes running on the system. (TasksMax= is the primary
+          setting that exposes the "pids" cgroup controller on systemd
+          and was introduced in the previous systemd release.) The
+          setting now defaults to 512, which means services that are
+          not explicitly configured otherwise will only be able to
+          create 512 processes or threads at maximum, from this
+          version on. Note that this means that thread- or
+          process-heavy services might need to be reconfigured to set
+          TasksMax= to a higher value. It is sufficient to set
+          TasksMax= in these specific unit files to a higher value, or
+          even "infinity". Similar, there's now a logind.conf setting
+          UserTasksMax= that defaults to 4096 and limits the total
+          number of processes or tasks each user may own
+          concurrently. nspawn containers also have the TasksMax=
+          value set by default now, to 8192. Note that all of this
+          only has an effect if the "pids" cgroup controller is
+          enabled in the kernel. The general benefit of these changes
+          should be a more robust and safer system, that provides a
+          certain amount of per-service fork() bomb protection.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained the new --network-veth-extra= switch
+          to define additional and arbitrarily-named virtual Ethernet
+          links between the host and the container.
+        * A new service execution setting PassEnvironment= has been
+          added that allows importing select environment variables
+          from PID1's environment block into the environment block of
+          the service.
+        * Timer units gained support for a new RemainAfterElapse=
+          setting which takes a boolean argument. It defaults to on,
+          exposing behaviour unchanged to previous releases. If set to
+          off, timer units are unloaded after they elapsed if they
+          cannot elapse again. This is particularly useful for
+          transient timer units, which shall not stay around longer
+          than until they first elapse.
+        * systemd will now bump the net.unix.max_dgram_qlen to 512 by
+          default now (the kernel default is 16). This is beneficial
+          for avoiding blocking on AF_UNIX/SOCK_DGRAM sockets since it
+          allows substantially larger numbers of queued
+          datagrams. This should increase the capability of systemd to
+          parallelize boot-up, as logging and sd_notify() are unlikely
+          to stall execution anymore. If you need to change the value
+          from the new defaults, use the usual sysctl.d/ snippets.
+        * The compression framing format used by the journal or
+          coredump processing has changed to be in line with what the
+          official LZ4 tools generate. LZ4 compression support in
+          systemd was considered unsupported previously, as the format
+          was not compatible with the normal tools. With this release
+          this has changed now, and it is hence safe for downstream
+          distributions to turn it on. While not compressing as well
+          as the XZ, LZ4 is substantially faster, which makes
+          it a good default choice for the compression logic in the
+          journal and in coredump handling.
+        * Any reference to /etc/mtab has been dropped from
+          systemd. The file has been obsolete since a while, but
+          systemd refused to work on systems where it was incorrectly
+          set up (it should be a symlink or non-existent). Please make
+          sure to update to util-linux 2.27.1 or newer in conjunction
+          with this systemd release, which also drops any reference to
+          /etc/mtab. If you maintain a distribution make sure that no
+          software you package still references it, as this is a
+          likely source of bugs. There's also a glibc bug pending,
+          asking for removal of any reference to this obsolete file:
+          Note that only util-linux versions built with
+          --enable-libmount-force-mountinfo are supported.
+        * Support for the ".snapshot" unit type has been removed. This
+          feature turned out to be little useful and little used, and
+          has now been removed from the core and from systemctl.
+        * The dependency types RequiresOverridable= and
+          RequisiteOverridable= have been removed from systemd. They
+          have been used only very sparingly to our knowledge and
+          other options that provide a similar effect (such as
+          systemctl --mode=ignore-dependencies) are much more useful
+          and commonly used. Moreover, they were only half-way
+          implemented as the option to control behaviour regarding
+          these dependencies was never added to systemctl. By removing
+          these dependency types the execution engine becomes a bit
+          simpler. Unit files that use these dependencies should be
+          changed to use the non-Overridable dependency types
+          instead. In fact, when parsing unit files with these
+          options, that's what systemd will automatically convert them
+          too, but it will also warn, asking users to fix the unit
+          files accordingly. Removal of these dependency types should
+          only affect a negligible number of unit files in the wild.
+        * Behaviour of networkd's IPForward= option changed
+          (again). It will no longer maintain a per-interface setting,
+          but propagate one way from interfaces where this is enabled
+          to the global kernel setting. The global setting will be
+          enabled when requested by a network that is set up, but
+          never be disabled again. This change was made to make sure
+          IPv4 and IPv6 behaviour regarding packet forwarding is
+          similar (as the Linux IPv6 stack does not support
+          per-interface control of this setting) and to minimize
+          surprises.
+        * In unit files the behaviour of %u, %U, %h, %s has
+          changed. These specifiers will now unconditionally resolve
+          to the various user database fields of the user that the
+          systemd instance is running as, instead of the user
+          configured in the specific unit via User=. Note that this
+          effectively doesn't change much, as resolving of these
+          specifiers was already turned off in the --system instance
+          of systemd, as we cannot do NSS lookups from PID 1. In the
+          --user instance of systemd these specifiers where correctly
+          resolved, but hardly made any sense, since the user instance
+          lacks privileges to do user switches anyway, and User= is
+          hence useless. Moreover, even in the --user instance of
+          systemd behaviour was awkward as it would only take settings
+          from User= assignment placed before the specifier into
+          account. In order to unify and simplify the logic around
+          this the specifiers will now always resolve to the
+          credentials of the user invoking the manager (which in case
+          of PID 1 is the root user).
+        Contributions from: Andrew Jones, Beniamino Galvani, Boyuan
+        Yang, Daniel Machon, Daniel Mack, David Herrmann, David
+        Reynolds, David Strauss, Dongsu Park, Evgeny Vereshchagin,
+        Felipe Sateler, Filipe Brandenburger, Franck Bui, Hristo
+        Venev, Iago López Galeiras, Jan Engelhardt, Jan Janssen, Jan
+        Synacek, Jesus Ornelas Aguayo, Karel Zak, kayrus, Kay Sievers,
+        Lennart Poettering, Liu Yuan Yuan, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel
+        Holtmann, Marcin Bachry, Marcos Alano, Marcos Mello, Mark
+        Theunissen, Martin Pitt, Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich,
+        Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Mirco Tischler, Nick Owens,
+        Nicolas Cornu, Patrik Flykt, Peter Hutterer, reverendhomer,
+        Ronny Chevalier, Sangjung Woo, Seong-ho Cho, Shawn Landden,
+        Susant Sahani, Thomas Haller, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen,
+        Tom Gundersen, Torstein Husebø, Vito Caputo, Zbigniew
+        Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2015-11-18
+        * systemd now depends on util-linux v2.27. More specifically,
+          the newly added mount monitor feature in libmount now
+          replaces systemd's former own implementation.
+        * libmount mandates /etc/mtab not to be regular file, and
+          systemd now enforces this condition at early boot.
+          /etc/mtab has been deprecated and warned about for a very
+          long time, so systems running systemd should already have
+          stopped having this file around as anything else than a
+          symlink to /proc/self/mounts.
+        * Support for the "pids" cgroup controller has been added.  It
+          allows accounting the number of tasks in a cgroup and
+          enforcing limits on it. This adds two new setting
+          TasksAccounting= and TasksMax= to each unit, as well as a
+          global option DefaultTasksAccounting=.
+        * Support for the "net_cls" cgroup controller has been added.
+          It allows assigning a net class ID to each task in the
+          cgroup, which can then be used in firewall rules and traffic
+          shaping configurations. Note that the kernel netfilter net
+          class code does not currently work reliably for ingress
+          packets on unestablished sockets.
+          This adds a new config directive called NetClass= to CGroup
+          enabled units. Allowed values are positive numbers for fixed
+          assignments and "auto" for picking a free value
+          automatically.
+        * 'systemctl is-system-running' now returns 'offline' if the
+          system is not booted with systemd. This command can now be
+          used as a substitute for 'systemd-notify --booted'.
+        * Watchdog timeouts have been increased to 3 minutes for all
+          in-tree service files. Apparently, disk IO issues are more
+          frequent than we hoped, and user reported >1 minute waiting
+          for disk IO.
+        * 'machine-id-commit' functionality has been merged into
+          'machine-id-setup --commit'. The separate binary has been
+          removed.
+        * The WorkingDirectory= directive in unit files may now be set
+          to the special value '~'. In this case, the working
+          directory is set to the home directory of the user
+          configured in User=.
+        * "machinectl shell" will now open the shell in the home
+          directory of the selected user by default.
+        * The CrashChVT= configuration file setting is renamed to
+          CrashChangeVT=, following our usual logic of not
+          abbreviating unnecessarily. The old directive is still
+          supported for compat reasons. Also, this directive now takes
+          an integer value between 1 and 63, or a boolean value. The
+          formerly supported '-1' value for disabling stays around for
+          compat reasons.
+        * The PrivateTmp=, PrivateDevices=, PrivateNetwork=,
+          NoNewPrivileges=, TTYPath=, WorkingDirectory= and
+          RootDirectory= properties can now be set for transient
+          units.
+        * The systemd-analyze tool gained a new "set-log-target" verb
+          to change the logging target the system manager logs to
+          dynamically during runtime. This is similar to how
+          "systemd-analyze set-log-level" already changes the log
+          level.
+        * In nspawn /sys is now mounted as tmpfs, with only a selected
+          set of subdirectories mounted in from the real sysfs. This
+          enhances security slightly, and is useful for ensuring user
+          namespaces work correctly.
+        * Support for USB FunctionFS activation has been added. This
+          allows implementation of USB gadget services that are
+          activated as soon as they are requested, so that they don't
+          have to run continuously, similar to classic socket
+          activation.
+        * The "systemctl exit" command now optionally takes an
+          additional parameter that sets the exit code to return from
+          the systemd manager when exiting. This is only relevant when
+          running the systemd user instance, or when running the
+          system instance in a container.
+        * sd-bus gained the new API calls sd_bus_path_encode_many()
+          and sd_bus_path_decode_many() that allow easy encoding and
+          decoding of multiple identifier strings inside a D-Bus
+          object path. Another new call sd_bus_default_flush_close()
+          has been added to flush and close per-thread default
+          connections.
+        * systemd-cgtop gained support for a -M/--machine= switch to
+          show the control groups within a certain container only.
+        * "systemctl kill" gained support for an optional --fail
+          switch. If specified the requested operation will fail of no
+          processes have been killed, because the unit had no
+          processes attached, or similar.
+        * A new systemd.crash_reboot=1 kernel command line option has
+          been added that triggers a reboot after crashing. This can
+          also be set through CrashReboot= in systemd.conf.
+        * The RuntimeDirectory= setting now understands unit
+          specifiers like %i or %f.
+        * A new (still internal) library API sd-ipv4acd has been added,
+          that implements address conflict detection for IPv4. It's
+          based on code from sd-ipv4ll, and will be useful for
+          detecting DHCP address conflicts.
+        * File descriptors passed during socket activation may now be
+          named. A new API sd_listen_fds_with_names() is added to
+          access the names.  The default names may be overridden,
+          either in the .socket file using the FileDescriptorName=
+          parameter, or by passing FDNAME= when storing the file
+          descriptors using sd_notify().
+        * systemd-networkd gained support for:
+            - Setting the IPv6 Router Advertisement settings via
+              IPv6AcceptRouterAdvertisements= in .network files.
+            - Configuring the HelloTimeSec=, MaxAgeSec= and
+              ForwardDelaySec= bridge parameters in .netdev files.
+            - Configuring PreferredSource= for static routes in
+              .network files.
+        * The "ask-password" framework used to query for LUKS harddisk
+          passwords or SSL passwords during boot gained support for
+          caching passwords in the kernel keyring, if it is
+          available. This makes sure that the user only has to type in
+          a passphrase once if there are multiple objects to unlock
+          with the same one. Previously, such password caching was
+          available only when Plymouth was used; this moves the
+          caching logic into the systemd codebase itself. The
+          "systemd-ask-password" utility gained a new --keyname=
+          switch to control which kernel keyring key to use for
+          caching a password in. This functionality is also useful for
+          enabling display managers such as gdm to automatically
+          unlock the user's GNOME keyring if its passphrase, the
+          user's password and the harddisk password are the same, if
+          gdm-autologin is used.
+        * When downloading tar or raw images using "machinectl
+          pull-tar" or "machinectl pull-raw", a matching ".nspawn"
+          file is now also downloaded, if it is available and stored
+          next to the image file.
+        * Units of type ".socket" gained a new boolean setting
+          Writable= which is only useful in conjunction with
+          ListenSpecial=. If true, enables opening the specified
+          special file in O_RDWR mode rather than O_RDONLY mode.
+        * systemd-rfkill has been reworked to become a singleton
+          service that is activated through /dev/rfkill on each rfkill
+          state change and saves the settings to disk. This way,
+          systemd-rfkill is now compatible with devices that exist
+          only intermittendly, and even restores state if the previous
+          system shutdown was abrupt rather than clean.
+        * The journal daemon gained support for vacuuming old journal
+          files controlled by the number of files that shall remain,
+          in addition to the already existing control by size and by
+          date. This is useful as journal interleaving performance
+          degrades with too many separate journal files, and allows
+          putting an effective limit on them. The new setting defaults
+          to 100, but this may be changed by setting SystemMaxFiles=
+          and RuntimeMaxFiles= in journald.conf. Also, the
+          "journalctl" tool gained the new --vacuum-files= switch to
+          manually vacuum journal files to leave only the specified
+          number of files in place.
+        * udev will now create /dev/disk/by-path links for ATA devices
+          on kernels where that is supported.
+        * Galician, Serbian, Turkish and Korean translations were added.
+        Contributions from: Aaro Koskinen, Alban Crequy, Beniamino
+        Galvani, Benjamin Robin, Branislav Blaskovic, Chen-Han Hsiao
+        (Stanley), Daniel Buch, Daniel Machon, Daniel Mack, David
+        Herrmann, David Milburn, doubleodoug, Evgeny Vereshchagin,
+        Felipe Franciosi, Filipe Brandenburger, Fran Dieguez, Gabriel
+        de Perthuis, Georg Müller, Hans de Goede, Hendrik Brueckner,
+        Ivan Shapovalov, Jacob Keller, Jan Engelhardt, Jan Janssen,
+        Jan Synacek, Jens Kuske, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers, Krzesimir
+        Nowak, Krzysztof Kotlenga, Lars Uebernickel, Lennart
+        Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Łukasz Stelmach, Maciej Wereski,
+        Marcel Holtmann, Marius Thesing, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl,
+        Michael Gebetsroither, Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Mike
+        Gilbert, Muhammet Kara, nazgul77, Nicolas Cornu, NoXPhasma,
+        Olof Johansson, Patrik Flykt, Pawel Szewczyk, reverendhomer,
+        Ronny Chevalier, Sangjung Woo, Seong-ho Cho, Susant Sahani,
+        Sylvain Plantefève, Thomas Haller, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel
+        Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Tom Lyon, Viktar Vauchkevich,
+        Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Марко М. Костић
+        — Berlin, 2015-10-07
+        * The DHCP implementation of systemd-networkd gained a set of
+          new features:
+          - The DHCP server now supports emitting DNS and NTP
+            information. It may be enabled and configured via
+            EmitDNS=, DNS=, EmitNTP=, and NTP=. If transmission of DNS
+            and NTP information is enabled, but no servers are
+            configured, the corresponding uplink information (if there
+            is any) is propagated.
+          - Server and client now support transmission and reception
+            of timezone information. It can be configured via the
+            newly introduced network options UseTimezone=,
+            EmitTimezone=, and Timezone=.  Transmission of timezone
+            information is enabled between host and containers by
+            default now: the container will change its local timezone
+            to what the host has set.
+          - Lease timeouts can now be configured via
+            MaxLeaseTimeSec= and DefaultLeaseTimeSec=.
+          - The DHCP server improved on the stability of
+            leases. Clients are more likely to get the same lease
+            information back, even if the server loses state.
+          - The DHCP server supports two new configuration options to
+            control the lease address pool metrics, PoolOffset= and
+            PoolSize=.
+        * The encapsulation limit of tunnels in systemd-networkd may
+          now be configured via 'EncapsulationLimit='. It allows
+          modifying the maximum additional levels of encapsulation
+          that are permitted to be prepended to a packet.
+        * systemd now supports the concept of user buses replacing
+          session buses, if used with dbus-1.10 (and enabled via dbus
+          --enable-user-session). It previously only supported this on
+          kdbus-enabled systems, and this release expands this to
+          'dbus-daemon' systems.
+        * systemd-networkd now supports predictable interface names
+          for virtio devices.
+        * systemd now optionally supports the new Linux kernel
+          "unified" control group hierarchy. If enabled via the kernel
+          command-line option 'systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy=1',
+          systemd will try to mount the unified cgroup hierarchy
+          directly on /sys/fs/cgroup. If not enabled, or not
+          available, systemd will fall back to the legacy cgroup
+          hierarchy setup, as before. Host system and containers can
+          mix and match legacy and unified hierarchies as they
+          wish. nspawn understands the $UNIFIED_CGROUP_HIERARCHY
+          environment variable to individually select the hierarchy to
+          use for executed containers. By default, nspawn will use the
+          unified hierarchy for the containers if the host uses the
+          unified hierarchy, and the legacy hierarchy otherwise.
+          Please note that at this point the unified hierarchy is an
+          experimental kernel feature and is likely to change in one
+          of the next kernel releases.  Therefore, it should not be
+          enabled by default in downstream distributions yet. The
+          minimum required kernel version for the unified hierarchy to
+          work is 4.2. Note that when the unified hierarchy is used
+          for the first time delegated access to controllers is
+          safe. Because of this systemd-nspawn containers will get
+          access to controllers now, as will systemd user
+          sessions. This means containers and user sessions may now
+          manage their own resources, partitioning up what the system
+          grants them.
+        * A new special scope unit "init.scope" has been introduced
+          that encapsulates PID 1 of the system. It may be used to
+          determine resource usage and enforce resource limits on PID
+          1 itself. PID 1 hence moved out of the root of the control
+          group tree.
+        * The cgtop tool gained support for filtering out kernel
+          threads when counting tasks in a control group. Also, the
+          count of processes is now recursively summed up by
+          default. Two options -k and --recursive= have been added to
+          revert to old behaviour. The tool has also been updated to
+          work correctly in containers now.
+        * systemd-nspawn's --bind= and --bind-ro= options have been
+          extended to allow creation of non-recursive bind mounts.
+        * libsystemd gained two new calls sd_pid_get_cgroup() and
+          sd_peer_get_cgroup() which return the control group path of
+          a process or peer of a connected AF_UNIX socket. This
+          function call is particularly useful when implementing
+          delegated subtrees support in the control group hierarchy.
+        * The "sd-event" event loop API of libsystemd now supports
+          correct dequeuing of real-time signals, without losing
+          signal events.
+        * When systemd requests a polkit decision when managing units it
+          will now add additional fields to the request, including unit
+          name and desired operation. This enables more powerful polkit
+          policies, that make decisions depending on these parameters.
+        * nspawn learnt support for .nspawn settings files, that may
+          accompany the image files or directories of containers, and
+          may contain additional settings for the container. This is
+          an alternative to configuring container parameters via the
+          nspawn command line.
+        Contributions from: Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Mack, David
+        Herrmann, Eugene Yakubovich, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Filipe
+        Brandenburger, Hans de Goede, Jan Alexander Steffens, Jan
+        Synacek, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Mangix, Marcel
+        Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Chapman, Michal
+        Sekletar, Peter Hutterer, Piotr Drąg, reverendhomer, Robin
+        Hack, Susant Sahani, Sylvain Pasche, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel
+        Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Torstein Husebø
+        — Berlin, 2015-09-08
+        * machinectl gained a new verb 'shell' which opens a fresh
+          shell on the target container or the host. It is similar to
+          the existing 'login' command of machinectl, but spawns the
+          shell directly without prompting for username or
+          password. The pseudo machine '.host' now refers to the local
+          host and is used by default. Hence, 'machinectl shell' can
+          be used as replacement for 'su -' which spawns a session as
+          a fresh systemd unit in a way that is fully isolated from
+          the originating session.
+        * systemd-networkd learned to cope with private-zone DHCP
+          options and allows other programs to query the values.
+        * SELinux access control when enabling/disabling units is no
+          longer enforced with this release. The previous implementation
+          was incorrect, and a new corrected implementation is not yet
+          available. As unit file operations are still protected via
+          polkit and D-Bus policy this is not a security problem. Yet,
+          distributions which care about optimal SELinux support should
+          probably not stabilize on this release.
+        * sd-bus gained support for matches of type "arg0has=", that
+          test for membership of strings in string arrays sent in bus
+          messages.
+        * systemd-resolved now dumps the contents of its DNS and LLMNR
+          caches to the logs on reception of the SIGUSR1 signal. This
+          is useful to debug DNS behaviour.
+        * The coredumpctl tool gained a new --directory= option to
+          operate on journal files in a specific directory.
+        * "systemctl reboot" and related commands gained a new
+          "--message=" option which may be used to set a free-text
+          wall message when shutting down or rebooting the
+          system. This message is also logged, which is useful for
+          figuring out the reason for a reboot or shutdown a
+          posteriori.
+        * The "systemd-resolve-host" tool's -i switch now takes
+          network interface numbers as alternative to interface names.
+        * A new unit file setting for services has been introduced:
+          UtmpMode= allows configuration of how precisely systemd
+          handles utmp and wtmp entries for the service if this is
+          enabled. This allows writing services that appear similar to
+          user sessions in the output of the "w", "who", "last" and
+          "lastlog" tools.
+        * systemd-resolved will now locally synthesize DNS resource
+          records for the "localhost" and "gateway" domains as well as
+          the local hostname. This should ensure that clients querying
+          RRs via resolved will get similar results as those going via
+          NSS, if nss-myhostname is enabled.
+        Contributions from: Alastair Hughes, Alex Crawford, Daniel
+        Mack, David Herrmann, Dimitri John Ledkov, Eric Kostrowski,
+        Evgeny Vereshchagin, Felipe Sateler, HATAYAMA Daisuke, Jan
+        Pokorný, Jan Synacek, Johnny Robeson, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers,
+        Kefeng Wang, Lennart Poettering, Major Hayden, Marcel
+        Holtmann, Markus Elfring, Martin Mikkelsen, Martin Pitt, Matt
+        Turner, Maxim Mikityanskiy, Michael Biebl, Namhyung Kim,
+        Nicolas Cornu, Owen W. Taylor, Patrik Flykt, Peter Hutterer,
+        reverendhomer, Richard Maw, Ronny Chevalier, Seth Jennings,
+        Stef Walter, Susant Sahani, Thomas Blume, Thomas Hindoe
+        Paaboel Andersen, Thomas Meyer, Tom Gundersen, Vincent Batts,
+        WaLyong Cho, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2015-08-27
+        * The systemd-efi-boot-generator functionality was merged into
+          systemd-gpt-auto-generator.
+        * systemd-networkd now supports Group Policy for vxlan
+          devices. It can be enabled via the new boolean configuration
+          option called 'GroupPolicyExtension='.
+        Contributions from: Andreas Kempf, Christian Hesse, Daniel Mack, David
+        Herrmann, Herman Fries, Johannes Nixdorf, Kay Sievers, Lennart
+        Poettering, Peter Hutterer, Susant Sahani, Tom Gundersen
+        — Berlin, 2015-07-31
+        * The python-systemd code has been removed from the systemd repository.
+          A new repository has been created which accommodates the code from
+          now on, and we kindly ask distributions to create a separate package
+          for this:
+        * The systemd daemon will now reload its main configuration
+          (/etc/systemd/system.conf) on daemon-reload.
+        * sd-dhcp now exposes vendor specific extensions via
+          sd_dhcp_lease_get_vendor_specific().
+        * systemd-networkd gained a number of new configuration options.
+          - A new boolean configuration option for TAP devices called
+            'VNetHeader='. If set, the IFF_VNET_HDR flag is set for the
+            device, thus allowing to send and receive GSO packets.
+          - A new tunnel configuration option called 'CopyDSCP='.
+            If enabled, the DSCP field of ip6 tunnels is copied into the
+            decapsulated packet.
+          - A set of boolean bridge configuration options were added.
+            'UseBPDU=', 'HairPin=', 'FastLeave=', 'AllowPortToBeRoot=',
+            and 'UnicastFlood=' are now parsed by networkd and applied to the
+            respective bridge link device via the respective IFLA_BRPORT_*
+            netlink attribute.
+          - A new string configuration option to override the hostname sent
+            to a DHCP server, called 'Hostname='. If set and 'SendHostname='
+            is true, networkd will use the configured hostname instead of the
+            system hostname when sending DHCP requests.
+          - A new tunnel configuration option called 'IPv6FlowLabel='. If set,
+            networkd will configure the IPv6 flow-label of the tunnel device
+            according to RFC2460.
+          - The 'macvtap' virtual network devices are now supported, similar to
+            the already supported 'macvlan' devices.
+        * systemd-resolved now implements RFC5452 to improve resilience against
+          cache poisoning. Additionally, source port randomization is enabled
+          by default to further protect against DNS spoofing attacks.
+        * nss-mymachines now supports translating UIDs and GIDs of running
+          containers with user-namespaces enabled. If a container 'foo'
+          translates a host uid 'UID' to the container uid 'TUID', then
+          nss-mymachines will also map uid 'UID' to/from username 'vu-foo-TUID'
+          (with 'foo' and 'TUID' replaced accordingly). Similarly, groups are
+          mapped as 'vg-foo-TGID'.
+        Contributions from: Beniamino Galvani, cee1, Christian Hesse, Daniel
+        Buch, Daniel Mack, daurnimator, David Herrmann, Dimitri John Ledkov,
+        HATAYAMA Daisuke, Ivan Shapovalov, Jan Alexander Steffens (heftig),
+        Johan Ouwerkerk, Jose Carlos Venegas Munoz, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers,
+        Lennart Poettering, Lidong Zhong, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael
+        Olbrich, Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Mike Gilbert, Namhyung Kim,
+        Nick Owens, Peter Hutterer, Richard Maw, Steven Allen, Sungbae Yoo,
+        Susant Sahani, Thomas Blume, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom
+        Gundersen, Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Vito Caputo,
+        Vivenzio Pagliari, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2015-07-29
+        * udev does not longer support the WAIT_FOR_SYSFS= key in udev rules.
+          There are no known issues with current sysfs, and udev does not need
+          or should be used to work around such bugs.
+        * udev does no longer enable USB HID power management. Several reports
+          indicate, that some devices cannot handle that setting.
+        * The udev accelerometer helper was removed. The functionality
+          is now fully included in iio-sensor-proxy. But this means,
+          older iio-sensor-proxy versions will no longer provide
+          accelerometer/orientation data with this systemd version.
+          Please upgrade iio-sensor-proxy to version 1.0.
+        * networkd gained a new configuration option IPv6PrivacyExtensions=
+          which enables IPv6 privacy extensions (RFC 4941, "Privacy Extensions
+          for Stateless Address") on selected networks.
+        * For the sake of fewer build-time dependencies and less code in the
+          main repository, the python bindings are about to be removed in the
+          next release. A new repository has been created which accommodates
+          the code from now on, and we kindly ask distributions to create a
+          separate package for this. The removal will take place in v223.
+        Contributions from: Abdo Roig-Maranges, Andrew Eikum, Bastien Nocera,
+        Cédric Delmas, Christian Hesse, Christos Trochalakis, Daniel Mack,
+        daurnimator, David Herrmann, Dimitri John Ledkov, Eric Biggers, Eric
+        Cook, Felipe Sateler, Geert Jansen, Gerd Hoffmann, Gianpaolo Macario,
+        Greg Kroah-Hartman, Iago López Galeiras, Jan Alexander Steffens
+        (heftig), Jan Engelhardt, Jay Strict, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering,
+        Markus Knetschke, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Marineau, Michal
+        Sekletar, Miguel Bernal Marin, Peter Hutterer, Richard Maw, rinrinne,
+        Susant Sahani, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Torstein
+        Husebø, Vedran Miletić, WaLyong Cho, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2015-07-07
+        * The sd-bus.h and sd-event.h APIs have now been declared
+          stable and have been added to the official interface of
+ sd-bus implements an alternative D-Bus client
+          library, that is relatively easy to use, very efficient and
+          supports both classic D-Bus as well as kdbus as transport
+          backend. sd-event is a generic event loop abstraction that
+          is built around Linux epoll, but adds features such as event
+          prioritization or efficient timer handling. Both APIs are good
+          choices for C programs looking for a bus and/or event loop
+          implementation that is minimal and does not have to be
+          portable to other kernels.
+        * kdbus support is no longer compile-time optional. It is now
+          always built-in. However, it can still be disabled at
+          runtime using the kdbus=0 kernel command line setting, and
+          that setting may be changed to default to off, by specifying
+          --disable-kdbus at build-time. Note though that the kernel
+          command line setting has no effect if the kdbus.ko kernel
+          module is not installed, in which case kdbus is (obviously)
+          also disabled. We encourage all downstream distributions to
+          begin testing kdbus by adding it to the kernel images in the
+          development distributions, and leaving kdbus support in
+          systemd enabled.
+        * The minimal required util-linux version has been bumped to
+          2.26.
+        * Support for chkconfig (--enable-chkconfig) was removed in
+          favor of calling an abstraction tool
+          /lib/systemd/systemd-sysv-install. This needs to be
+          implemented for your distribution. See "SYSV INIT.D SCRIPTS"
+          in README for details.
+        * If there's a systemd unit and a SysV init script for the
+          same service name, and the user executes "systemctl enable"
+          for it (or a related call), then this will now enable both
+          (or execute the related operation on both), not just the
+          unit.
+        * The libudev API documentation has been converted from gtkdoc
+          into man pages.
+        * gudev has been removed from the systemd tree, it is now an
+          external project.
+        * The systemd-cgtop tool learnt a new --raw switch to generate
+          "raw" (machine parsable) output.
+        * networkd's IPForwarding= .network file setting learnt the
+          new setting "kernel", which ensures that networkd does not
+          change the IP forwarding sysctl from the default kernel
+          state.
+        * The systemd-logind bus API now exposes a new boolean
+          property "Docked" that reports whether logind considers the
+          system "docked", i.e. connected to a docking station or not.
+        Contributions from: Alex Crawford, Andreas Pokorny, Andrei
+        Borzenkov, Charles Duffy, Colin Guthrie, Cristian Rodríguez,
+        Daniele Medri, Daniel Hahler, Daniel Mack, David Herrmann,
+        David Mohr, Dimitri John Ledkov, Djalal Harouni, dslul, Ed
+        Swierk, Eric Cook, Filipe Brandenburger, Gianpaolo Macario,
+        Harald Hoyer, Iago López Galeiras, Igor Vuk, Jan Synacek,
+        Jason Pleau, Jason S. McMullan, Jean Delvare, Jeff Huang,
+        Jonathan Boulle, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers, kloun, Lennart
+        Poettering, Marc-Antoine Perennou, Marcel Holtmann, Mario
+        Limonciello, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Olbrich,
+        Michal Schmidt, Mike Gilbert, Nick Owens, Pablo Lezaeta Reyes,
+        Patrick Donnelly, Pavel Odvody, Peter Hutterer, Philip
+        Withnall, Ronny Chevalier, Simon McVittie, Susant Sahani,
+        Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Torstein
+        Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Viktar Vauchkevich, Werner
+        Fink, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2015-06-19
+        * The gudev library has been extracted into a separate repository
+          available at:
+          It is now managed as part of the Gnome project. Distributions
+          are recommended to pass --disable-gudev to systemd and use
+          gudev from the Gnome project instead. gudev is still included
+          in systemd, for now. It will be removed soon, though. Please
+          also see the announcement-thread on systemd-devel:
+        * systemd now exposes a CPUUsageNSec= property for each
+          service unit on the bus, that contains the overall consumed
+          CPU time of a service (the sum of what each process of the
+          service consumed). This value is only available if
+          CPUAccounting= is turned on for a service, and is then shown
+          in the "systemctl status" output.
+        * Support for configuring alternative mappings of the old SysV
+          runlevels to systemd targets has been removed. They are now
+          hardcoded in a way that runlevels 2, 3, 4 all map to
+ and 5 to (which
+          previously was already the default behaviour).
+        * The auto-mounter logic gained support for mount point
+          expiry, using a new TimeoutIdleSec= setting in .automount
+          units. (Also available as x-systemd.idle-timeout= in /etc/fstab).
+        * The EFI System Partition (ESP) as mounted to /boot by
+          systemd-efi-boot-generator will now be unmounted
+          automatically after 2 minutes of not being used. This should
+          minimize the risk of ESP corruptions.
+        * New /etc/fstab options x-systemd.requires= and
+          x-systemd.requires-mounts-for= are now supported to express
+          additional dependencies for mounts. This is useful for
+          journaling file systems that support external journal
+          devices or overlay file systems that require underlying file
+          systems to be mounted.
+        * systemd does not support direct live-upgrades (via systemctl
+          daemon-reexec) from versions older than v44 anymore. As no
+          distribution we are aware of shipped such old versions in a
+          stable release this should not be problematic.
+        * When systemd forks off a new per-connection service instance
+          it will now set the $REMOTE_ADDR environment variable to the
+          remote IP address, and $REMOTE_PORT environment variable to
+          the remote IP port. This behaviour is similar to the
+          corresponding environment variables defined by CGI.
+        * systemd-networkd gained support for uplink failure
+          detection. The BindCarrier= option allows binding interface
+          configuration dynamically to the link sense of other
+          interfaces. This is useful to achieve behaviour like in
+          network switches.
+        * systemd-networkd gained support for configuring the DHCP
+          client identifier to use when requesting leases.
+        * systemd-networkd now has a per-network UseNTP= option to
+          configure whether NTP server information acquired via DHCP
+          is passed on to services like systemd-timesyncd.
+        * systemd-networkd gained support for vti6 tunnels.
+        * Note that systemd-networkd manages the sysctl variable
+          /proc/sys/net/ipv[46]/conf/*/forwarding for each interface
+          it is configured for since v219. The variable controls IP
+          forwarding, and is a per-interface alternative to the global
+          /proc/sys/net/ipv[46]/ip_forward. This setting is
+          configurable in the IPForward= option, which defaults to
+          "no". This means if networkd is used for an interface it is
+          no longer sufficient to set the global sysctl option to turn
+          on IP forwarding! Instead, the .network file option
+          IPForward= needs to be turned on! Note that the
+          implementation of this behaviour was broken in v219 and has
+          been fixed in v220.
+        * Many bonding and vxlan options are now configurable in
+          systemd-networkd.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --property= setting to set unit
+          properties for the container scope. This is useful for
+          setting resource parameters (e.g. "CPUShares=500") on
+          containers started from the command line.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --private-users= switch to make
+          use of user namespacing available on recent Linux kernels.
+        * systemd-nspawn may now be called as part of a shell pipeline
+          in which case the pipes used for stdin and stdout are passed
+          directly to the process invoked in the container, without
+          indirection via a pseudo tty.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new switch to control the UNIX
+          signal to use when killing the init process of the container
+          when shutting down.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --overlay= switch for mounting
+          overlay file systems into the container using the new kernel
+          overlayfs support.
+        * When a container image is imported via systemd-importd and
+          the host file system is not btrfs, a loopback block device
+          file is created in /var/lib/machines.raw with a btrfs file
+          system inside. It is then mounted to /var/lib/machines to
+          enable btrfs features for container management. The loopback
+          file and btrfs file system is grown as needed when container
+          images are imported via systemd-importd.
+        * systemd-machined/systemd-importd gained support for btrfs
+          quota, to enforce container disk space limits on disk. This
+          is exposed in "machinectl set-limit".
+        * systemd-importd now can import containers from local .tar,
+          .raw and .qcow2 images, and export them to .tar and .raw. It
+          can also import dkr v2 images now from the network (on top
+          of v1 as before).
+        * systemd-importd gained support for verifying downloaded
+          images with gpg2 (previously only gpg1 was supported).
+        * systemd-machined, systemd-logind, systemd: most bus calls are
+          now accessible to unprivileged processes via polkit. Also,
+          systemd-logind will now allow users to kill their own sessions
+          without further privileges or authorization.
+        * systemd-shutdownd has been removed. This service was
+          previously responsible for implementing scheduled shutdowns
+          as exposed in /usr/bin/shutdown's time parameter. This
+          functionality has now been moved into systemd-logind and is
+          accessible via a bus interface.
+        * "systemctl reboot" gained a new switch --firmware-setup that
+          can be used to reboot into the EFI firmware setup, if that
+          is available. systemd-logind now exposes an API on the bus
+          to trigger such reboots, in case graphical desktop UIs want
+          to cover this functionality.
+        * "systemctl enable", "systemctl disable" and "systemctl mask"
+          now support a new "--now" switch. If specified the units
+          that are enabled will also be started, and the ones
+          disabled/masked also stopped.
+        * The Gummiboot EFI boot loader tool has been merged into
+          systemd, and renamed to "systemd-boot". The bootctl tool has been
+          updated to support systemd-boot.
+        * An EFI kernel stub has been added that may be used to create
+          kernel EFI binaries that contain not only the actual kernel,
+          but also an initrd, boot splash, command line and OS release
+          information. This combined binary can then be signed as a
+          single image, so that the firmware can verify it all in one
+          step. systemd-boot has special support for EFI binaries created
+          like this and can extract OS release information from them
+          and show them in the boot menu. This functionality is useful
+          to implement cryptographically verified boot schemes.
+        * Optional support has been added to systemd-fsck to pass
+          fsck's progress report to an AF_UNIX socket in the file
+          system.
+        * udev will no longer create device symlinks for all block devices by
+          default. A deny list for excluding special block devices from this
+          logic has been turned into an allow list that requires picking block
+          devices explicitly that require device symlinks.
+        * A new (currently still internal) API sd-device.h has been
+          added to libsystemd. This modernized API is supposed to
+          replace libudev eventually. In fact, already much of libudev
+          is now just a wrapper around sd-device.h.
+        * A new hwdb database for storing metadata about pointing
+          stick devices has been added.
+        * systemd-tmpfiles gained support for setting file attributes
+          similar to the "chattr" tool with new 'h' and 'H' lines.
+        * systemd-journald will no longer unconditionally set the
+          btrfs NOCOW flag on new journal files. This is instead done
+          with tmpfiles snippet using the new 'h' line type. This
+          allows easy disabling of this logic, by masking the
+          journal-nocow.conf tmpfiles file.
+        * systemd-journald will now translate audit message types to
+          human readable identifiers when writing them to the
+          journal. This should improve readability of audit messages.
+        * The LUKS logic gained support for the offset= and skip=
+          options in /etc/crypttab, as previously implemented by
+          Debian.
+        * /usr/lib/os-release gained a new optional field VARIANT= for
+          distributions that support multiple variants (such as a
+          desktop edition, a server edition, …)
+        Contributions from: Aaro Koskinen, Adam Goode, Alban Crequy,
+        Alberto Fanjul Alonso, Alexander Sverdlin, Alex Puchades, Alin
+        Rauta, Alison Chaiken, Andrew Jones, Arend van Spriel,
+        Benedikt Morbach, Benjamin Franzke, Benjamin Tissoires, Blaž
+        Tomažič, Chris Morgan, Chris Morin, Colin Walters, Cristian
+        Rodríguez, Daniel Buch, Daniel Drake, Daniele Medri, Daniel
+        Mack, Daniel Mustieles, daurnimator, Davide Bettio, David
+        Herrmann, David Strauss, Didier Roche, Dimitri John Ledkov,
+        Eric Cook, Gavin Li, Goffredo Baroncelli, Hannes Reinecke,
+        Hans de Goede, Hans-Peter Deifel, Harald Hoyer, Iago López
+        Galeiras, Ivan Shapovalov, Jan Engelhardt, Jan Janssen, Jan
+        Pazdziora, Jan Synacek, Jasper St. Pierre, Jay Faulkner, John
+        Paul Adrian Glaubitz, Jonathon Gilbert, Karel Zak, Kay
+        Sievers, Koen Kooi, Lennart Poettering, Lubomir Rintel, Lucas
+        De Marchi, Lukas Nykryn, Lukas Rusak, Lukasz Skalski, Łukasz
+        Stelmach, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marc-Antoine Perennou, Marcel
+        Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Mathieu Chevrier, Matthew Garrett,
+        Michael Biebl, Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Michal
+        Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Mirco Tischler, Nir Soffer, Patrik
+        Flykt, Pavel Odvody, Peter Hutterer, Peter Lemenkov, Peter
+        Waller, Piotr Drąg, Raul Gutierrez S, Richard Maw, Ronny
+        Chevalier, Ross Burton, Sebastian Rasmussen, Sergey Ptashnick,
+        Seth Jennings, Shawn Landden, Simon Farnsworth, Stefan Junker,
+        Stephen Gallagher, Susant Sahani, Sylvain Plantefève, Thomas
+        Haller, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tobias Hunger, Tom
+        Gundersen, Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Will
+        Woods, Zachary Cook, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2015-05-22
+        * Introduce a new API "sd-hwdb.h" for querying the hardware
+          metadata database. With this minimal interface one can query
+          and enumerate the udev hwdb, decoupled from the old libudev
+          library. libudev's interface for this is now only a wrapper
+          around sd-hwdb. A new tool systemd-hwdb has been added to
+          interface with and update the database.
+        * When any of systemd's tools copies files (for example due to
+          tmpfiles' C lines) a btrfs reflink will attempted first,
+          before bytewise copying is done.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --ephemeral switch. When
+          specified a btrfs snapshot is taken of the container's root
+          directory, and immediately removed when the container
+          terminates again. Thus, a container can be started whose
+          changes never alter the container's root directory, and are
+          lost on container termination. This switch can also be used
+          for starting a container off the root file system of the
+          host without affecting the host OS. This switch is only
+          available on btrfs file systems.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --template= switch. It takes the
+          path to a container tree to use as template for the tree
+          specified via --directory=, should that directory be
+          missing. This allows instantiating containers dynamically,
+          on first run. This switch is only available on btrfs file
+          systems.
+        * When a .mount unit refers to a mount point on which multiple
+          mounts are stacked, and the .mount unit is stopped all of
+          the stacked mount points will now be unmounted until no
+          mount point remains.
+        * systemd now has an explicit notion of supported and
+          unsupported unit types. Jobs enqueued for unsupported unit
+          types will now fail with an "unsupported" error code. More
+          specifically .swap, .automount and .device units are not
+          supported in containers, .busname units are not supported on
+          non-kdbus systems. .swap and .automount are also not
+          supported if their respective kernel compile time options
+          are disabled.
+        * machinectl gained support for two new "copy-from" and
+          "copy-to" commands for copying files from a running
+          container to the host or vice versa.
+        * machinectl gained support for a new "bind" command to bind
+          mount host directories into local containers. This is
+          currently only supported for nspawn containers.
+        * networkd gained support for configuring bridge forwarding
+          database entries (fdb) from .network files.
+        * A new tiny daemon "systemd-importd" has been added that can
+          download container images in tar, raw, qcow2 or dkr formats,
+          and make them available locally in /var/lib/machines, so
+          that they can run as nspawn containers. The daemon can GPG
+          verify the downloads (not supported for dkr, since it has no
+          provisions for verifying downloads). It will transparently
+          decompress bz2, xz, gzip compressed downloads if necessary,
+          and restore sparse files on disk. The daemon uses privilege
+          separation to ensure the actual download logic runs with
+          fewer privileges than the daemon itself. machinectl has
+          gained new commands "pull-tar", "pull-raw" and "pull-dkr" to
+          make the functionality of importd available to the
+          user. With this in place the Fedora and Ubuntu "Cloud"
+          images can be downloaded and booted as containers unmodified
+          (the Fedora images lack the appropriate GPG signature files
+          currently, so they cannot be verified, but this will change
+          soon, hopefully). Note that downloading images is currently
+          only fully supported on btrfs.
+        * machinectl is now able to list container images found in
+          /var/lib/machines, along with some metadata about sizes of
+          disk and similar. If the directory is located on btrfs and
+          quota is enabled, this includes quota display. A new command
+          "image-status" has been added that shows additional
+          information about images.
+        * machinectl is now able to clone container images
+          efficiently, if the underlying file system (btrfs) supports
+          it, with the new "machinectl clone" command. It also
+          gained commands for renaming and removing images, as well as
+          marking them read-only or read-write (supported also on
+          legacy file systems).
+        * networkd gained support for collecting LLDP network
+          announcements, from hardware that supports this. This is
+          shown in networkctl output.
+        * systemd-run gained support for a new -t (--pty) switch for
+          invoking a binary on a pty whose input and output is
+          connected to the invoking terminal. This allows executing
+          processes as system services while interactively
+          communicating with them via the terminal. Most interestingly
+          this is supported across container boundaries. Invoking
+          "systemd-run -t /bin/bash" is an alternative to running a
+          full login session, the difference being that the former
+          will not register a session, nor go through the PAM session
+          setup.
+        * tmpfiles gained support for a new "v" line type for creating
+          btrfs subvolumes. If the underlying file system is a legacy
+          file system, this automatically degrades to creating a
+          normal directory. Among others /var/lib/machines is now
+          created like this at boot, should it be missing.
+        * The directory /var/lib/containers/ has been deprecated and
+          been replaced by /var/lib/machines. The term "machines" has
+          been used in the systemd context as generic term for both
+          VMs and containers, and hence appears more appropriate for
+          this, as the directory can also contain raw images bootable
+          via qemu/kvm.
+        * systemd-nspawn when invoked with -M but without --directory=
+          or --image= is now capable of searching for the container
+          root directory, subvolume or disk image automatically, in
+          /var/lib/machines. systemd-nspawn@.service has been updated
+          to make use of this, thus allowing it to be used for raw
+          disk images, too.
+        * A new unit has been introduced that is
+          supposed to group all containers/VMs invoked as services on
+          the system. systemd-nspawn@.service has been updated to
+          integrate with that.
+        * machinectl gained a new "start" command, for invoking a
+          container as a service. "machinectl start foo" is mostly
+          equivalent to "systemctl start systemd-nspawn@foo.service",
+          but handles escaping in a nicer way.
+        * systemd-nspawn will now mount most of the cgroupfs tree
+          read-only into each container, with the exception of the
+          container's own subtree in the name=systemd hierarchy.
+        * journald now sets the special FS_NOCOW file flag for its
+          journal files. This should improve performance on btrfs, by
+          avoiding heavy fragmentation when journald's write-pattern
+          is used on COW file systems. It degrades btrfs' data
+          integrity guarantees for the files to the same levels as for
+          ext3/ext4 however. This should be OK though as journald does
+          its own data integrity checks and all its objects are
+          checksummed on disk. Also, journald should handle btrfs disk
+          full events a lot more gracefully now, by processing SIGBUS
+          errors, and not relying on fallocate() anymore.
+        * When journald detects that journal files it is writing to
+          have been deleted it will immediately start new journal
+          files.
+        * systemd now provides a way to store file descriptors
+          per-service in PID 1. This is useful for daemons to ensure
+          that fds they require are not lost during a daemon
+          restart. The fds are passed to the daemon on the next
+          invocation in the same way socket activation fds are
+          passed. This is now used by journald to ensure that the
+          various sockets connected to all the system's stdout/stderr
+          are not lost when journald is restarted. File descriptors
+          may be stored in PID 1 via the sd_pid_notify_with_fds() API,
+          an extension to sd_notify(). Note that a limit is enforced
+          on the number of fds a service can store in PID 1, and it
+          defaults to 0, so that no fds may be stored, unless this is
+          explicitly turned on.
+        * The default TERM variable to use for units connected to a
+          terminal, when no other value is explicitly is set is now
+          vt220 rather than vt102. This should be fairly safe still,
+          but allows PgUp/PgDn work.
+        * The /etc/crypttab option header= as known from Debian is now
+          supported.
+        * "loginctl user-status" and "loginctl session-status" will
+          now show the last 10 lines of log messages of the
+          user/session following the status output. Similar,
+          "machinectl status" will show the last 10 log lines
+          associated with a virtual machine or container
+          service. (Note that this is usually not the log messages
+          done in the VM/container itself, but simply what the
+          container manager logs. For nspawn this includes all console
+          output however.)
+        * "loginctl session-status" without further argument will now
+          show the status of the session of the caller. Similar,
+          "lock-session", "unlock-session", "activate",
+          "enable-linger", "disable-linger" may now be called without
+          session/user parameter in which case they apply to the
+          caller's session/user.
+        * An X11 session scriptlet is now shipped that uploads
+          $DISPLAY and $XAUTHORITY into the environment of the systemd
+          --user daemon if a session begins. This should improve
+          compatibility with X11 enabled applications run as systemd
+          user services.
+        * Generators are now subject to masking via /etc and /run, the
+          same way as unit files.
+        * networkd .network files gained support for configuring
+          per-link IPv4/IPv6 packet forwarding as well as IPv4
+          masquerading. This is by default turned on for veth links to
+          containers, as registered by systemd-nspawn. This means that
+          nspawn containers run with --network-veth will now get
+          automatic routed access to the host's networks without any
+          further configuration or setup, as long as networkd runs on
+          the host.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained the --port= (-p) switch to expose TCP
+          or UDP posts of a container on the host. With this in place
+          it is possible to run containers with private veth links
+          (--network-veth), and have their functionality exposed on
+          the host as if their services were running directly on the
+          host.
+        * systemd-nspawn's --network-veth switch now gained a short
+          version "-n", since with the changes above it is now truly
+          useful out-of-the-box. The systemd-nspawn@.service has been
+          updated to make use of it too by default.
+        * systemd-nspawn will now maintain a per-image R/W lock, to
+          ensure that the same image is not started more than once
+          writable. (It's OK to run an image multiple times
+          simultaneously in read-only mode.)
+        * systemd-nspawn's --image= option is now capable of
+          dissecting and booting MBR and GPT disk images that contain
+          only a single active Linux partition. Previously it
+          supported only GPT disk images with proper GPT type
+          IDs. This allows running cloud images from major
+          distributions directly with systemd-nspawn, without
+          modification.
+        * In addition to collecting mouse dpi data in the udev
+          hardware database, there's now support for collecting angle
+          information for mouse scroll wheels. The database is
+          supposed to guarantee similar scrolling behavior on mice
+          that it knows about. There's also support for collecting
+          information about Touchpad types.
+        * udev's input_id built-in will now also collect touch screen
+          dimension data and attach it to probed devices.
+        * /etc/os-release gained support for a Distribution Privacy
+          Policy link field.
+        * networkd gained support for creating "ipvlan", "gretap",
+          "ip6gre", "ip6gretap" and "ip6tnl" network devices.
+        * systemd-tmpfiles gained support for "a" lines for setting
+          ACLs on files.
+        * systemd-nspawn will now mount /tmp in the container to
+          tmpfs, automatically.
+        * systemd now exposes the memory.usage_in_bytes cgroup
+          attribute and shows it for each service in the "systemctl
+          status" output, if available.
+        * When the user presses Ctrl-Alt-Del more than 7x within 2s an
+          immediate reboot is triggered. This useful if shutdown is
+          hung and is unable to complete, to expedite the
+          operation. Note that this kind of reboot will still unmount
+          all file systems, and hence should not result in fsck being
+          run on next reboot.
+        * A .device unit for an optical block device will now be
+          considered active only when a medium is in the drive. Also,
+          mount units are now bound to their backing devices thus
+          triggering automatic unmounting when devices become
+          unavailable. With this in place systemd will now
+          automatically unmount left-over mounts when a CD-ROM is
+          ejected or an USB stick is yanked from the system.
+        * networkd-wait-online now has support for waiting for
+          specific interfaces only (with globbing), and for giving up
+          after a configurable timeout.
+        * networkd now exits when idle. It will be automatically
+          restarted as soon as interfaces show up, are removed or
+          change state. networkd will stay around as long as there is
+          at least one DHCP state machine or similar around, that keep
+          it non-idle.
+        * networkd may now configure IPv6 link-local addressing in
+          addition to IPv4 link-local addressing.
+        * The IPv6 "token" for use in SLAAC may now be configured for
+          each .network interface in networkd.
+        * Routes configured with networkd may now be assigned a scope
+          in .network files.
+        * networkd's [Match] sections now support globbing and lists
+          of multiple space-separated matches per item.
+        Contributions from: Alban Crequy, Alin Rauta, Andrey Chaser,
+        Bastien Nocera, Bruno Bottazzini, Carlos Garnacho, Carlos
+        Morata Castillo, Chris Atkinson, Chris J. Arges, Christian
+        Kirbach, Christian Seiler, Christoph Brill, Colin Guthrie,
+        Colin Walters, Cristian Rodríguez, Daniele Medri, Daniel Mack,
+        Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Djalal Harouni, Erik Auerswald,
+        Filipe Brandenburger, Frank Theile, Gabor Kelemen, Gabriel de
+        Perthuis, Harald Hoyer, Hui Wang, Ivan Shapovalov, Jan
+        Engelhardt, Jan Synacek, Jay Faulkner, Johannes Hölzl, Jonas
+        Ådahl, Jonathan Boulle, Josef Andersson, Kay Sievers, Ken
+        Werner, Lennart Poettering, Lucas De Marchi, Lukas Märdian,
+        Lukas Nykryn, Lukasz Skalski, Luke Shumaker, Mantas Mikulėnas,
+        Manuel Mendez, Marcel Holtmann, Marc Schmitzer, Marko
+        Myllynen, Martin Pitt, Maxim Mikityanskiy, Michael Biebl,
+        Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Michal Schmidt, Mindaugas
+        Baranauskas, Moez Bouhlel, Naveen Kumar, Patrik Flykt, Paul
+        Martin, Peter Hutterer, Peter Mattern, Philippe De Swert,
+        Piotr Drąg, Rafael Ferreira, Rami Rosen, Robert Milasan, Ronny
+        Chevalier, Sangjung Woo, Sebastien Bacher, Sergey Ptashnick,
+        Shawn Landden, Stéphane Graber, Susant Sahani, Sylvain
+        Plantefève, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tim JP, Tom
+        Gundersen, Topi Miettinen, Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar
+        Lindskog, Veres Lajos, Vincent Batts, WaLyong Cho, Wieland
+        Hoffmann, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2015-02-16
+        * When querying unit file enablement status (for example via
+          "systemctl is-enabled"), a new state "indirect" is now known
+          which indicates that a unit might not be enabled itself, but
+          another unit listed in its Also= setting might be.
+        * Similar to the various existing ConditionXYZ= settings for
+          units, there are now matching AssertXYZ= settings. While
+          failing conditions cause a unit to be skipped, but its job
+          to succeed, failing assertions declared like this will cause
+          a unit start operation and its job to fail.
+        * hostnamed now knows a new chassis type "embedded".
+        * systemctl gained a new "edit" command. When used on a unit
+          file, this allows extending unit files with .d/ drop-in
+          configuration snippets or editing the full file (after
+          copying it from /usr/lib to /etc). This will invoke the
+          user's editor (as configured with $EDITOR), and reload the
+          modified configuration after editing.
+        * "systemctl status" now shows the suggested enablement state
+          for a unit, as declared in the (usually vendor-supplied)
+          system preset files.
+        * nss-myhostname will now resolve the single-label hostname
+          "gateway" to the locally configured default IP routing
+          gateways, ordered by their metrics. This assigns a stable
+          name to the used gateways, regardless which ones are
+          currently configured. Note that the name will only be
+          resolved after all other name sources (if nss-myhostname is
+          configured properly) and should hence not negatively impact
+          systems that use the single-label hostname "gateway" in
+          other contexts.
+        * systemd-inhibit now allows filtering by mode when listing
+          inhibitors.
+        * Scope and service units gained a new "Delegate" boolean
+          property, which, when set, allows processes running inside the
+          unit to further partition resources. This is primarily
+          useful for systemd user instances as well as container
+          managers.
+        * journald will now pick up audit messages directly from
+          the kernel, and log them like any other log message. The
+          audit fields are split up and fully indexed. This means that
+          journalctl in many ways is now a (nicer!) alternative to
+          ausearch, the traditional audit client. Note that this
+          implements only a minimal audit client. If you want the
+          special audit modes like reboot-on-log-overflow, please use
+          the traditional auditd instead, which can be used in
+          parallel to journald.
+        * The ConditionSecurity= unit file option now understands the
+          special string "audit" to check whether auditing is
+          available.
+        * journalctl gained two new commands --vacuum-size= and
+          --vacuum-time= to delete old journal files until the
+          remaining ones take up no more than the specified size on disk,
+          or are not older than the specified time.
+        * A new, native PPPoE library has been added to sd-network,
+          systemd's library of light-weight networking protocols. This
+          library will be used in a future version of networkd to
+          enable PPPoE communication without an external pppd daemon.
+        * The busctl tool now understands a new "capture" verb that
+          works similar to "monitor", but writes a packet capture
+          trace to STDOUT that can be redirected to a file which is
+          compatible with libcap's capture file format. This can then
+          be loaded in Wireshark and similar tools to inspect bus
+          communication.
+        * The busctl tool now understands a new "tree" verb that shows
+          the object trees of a specific service on the bus, or of all
+          services.
+        * The busctl tool now understands a new "introspect" verb that
+          shows all interfaces and members of objects on the bus,
+          including their signature and values. This is particularly
+          useful to get more information about bus objects shown by
+          the new "busctl tree" command.
+        * The busctl tool now understands new verbs "call",
+          "set-property" and "get-property" for invoking bus method
+          calls, setting and getting bus object properties in a
+          friendly way.
+        * busctl gained a new --augment-creds= argument that controls
+          whether the tool shall augment credential information it
+          gets from the bus with data from /proc, in a possibly
+          race-ful way.
+        * nspawn's --link-journal= switch gained two new values
+          "try-guest" and "try-host" that work like "guest" and
+          "host", but do not fail if the host has no persistent
+          journaling enabled. -j is now equivalent to
+          --link-journal=try-guest.
+        * macvlan network devices created by nspawn will now have
+          stable MAC addresses.
+        * A new SmackProcessLabel= unit setting has been added, which
+          controls the SMACK security label processes forked off by
+          the respective unit shall use.
+        * If compiled with --enable-xkbcommon, systemd-localed will
+          verify x11 keymap settings by compiling the given keymap. It
+          will spew out warnings if the compilation fails. This
+          requires libxkbcommon to be installed.
+        * When a coredump is collected, a larger number of metadata
+          fields is now collected and included in the journal records
+          created for it. More specifically, control group membership,
+          environment variables, memory maps, working directory,
+          chroot directory, /proc/$PID/status, and a list of open file
+          descriptors is now stored in the log entry.
+        * The udev hwdb now contains DPI information for mice. For
+          details see:
+        * All systemd programs that read standalone configuration
+          files in /etc now also support a corresponding series of
+          .conf.d configuration directories in /etc/, /run/,
+          /usr/local/lib/, /usr/lib/, and (if configured with
+          --enable-split-usr) /lib/.  In particular, the following
+          configuration files now have corresponding configuration
+          directories: system.conf user.conf, logind.conf,
+          journald.conf, sleep.conf, bootchart.conf, coredump.conf,
+          resolved.conf, timesyncd.conf, journal-remote.conf, and
+          journal-upload.conf.  Note that distributions should use the
+          configuration directories in /usr/lib/; the directories in
+          /etc/ are reserved for the system administrator.
+        * systemd-rfkill will no longer take the rfkill device name
+          into account when storing rfkill state on disk, as the name
+          might be dynamically assigned and not stable. Instead, the
+          ID_PATH udev variable combined with the rfkill type (wlan,
+          bluetooth, …) is used.
+        * A new service systemd-machine-id-commit.service has been
+          added. When used on systems where /etc is read-only during
+          boot, and /etc/machine-id is not initialized (but an empty
+          file), this service will copy the temporary machine ID
+          created as replacement into /etc after the system is fully
+          booted up. This is useful for systems that are freshly
+          installed with a non-initialized machine ID, but should get
+          a fixed machine ID for subsequent boots.
+        * networkd's .netdev files now provide a large set of
+          configuration parameters for VXLAN devices. Similarly, the
+          bridge port cost parameter is now configurable in .network
+          files. There's also new support for configuring IP source
+          routing. networkd .link files gained support for a new
+          OriginalName= match that is useful to match against the
+          original interface name the kernel assigned. .network files
+          may include MTU= and MACAddress= fields for altering the MTU
+          and MAC address while being connected to a specific network
+          interface.
+        * The LUKS logic gained supported for configuring
+          UUID-specific key files. There's also new support for naming
+          LUKS device from the kernel command line, using the new
+ argument.
+        * Timer units may now be transiently created via the bus API
+          (this was previously already available for scope and service
+          units). In addition it is now possible to create multiple
+          transient units at the same time with a single bus call. The
+          "systemd-run" tool has been updated to make use of this for
+          running commands on a specified time, in at(1)-style.
+        * tmpfiles gained support for "t" lines, for assigning
+          extended attributes to files. Among other uses this may be
+          used to assign SMACK labels to files.
+        Contributions from: Alin Rauta, Alison Chaiken, Andrej
+        Manduch, Bastien Nocera, Chris Atkinson, Chris Leech, Chris
+        Mayo, Colin Guthrie, Colin Walters, Cristian Rodríguez,
+        Daniele Medri, Daniel Mack, Dan Williams, Dan Winship, Dave
+        Reisner, David Herrmann, Didier Roche, Felipe Sateler, Gavin
+        Li, Hans de Goede, Harald Hoyer, Iago López Galeiras, Ivan
+        Shapovalov, Jakub Filak, Jan Janssen, Jan Synacek, Joe
+        Lawrence, Josh Triplett, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering,
+        Lukas Nykryn, Łukasz Stelmach, Maciej Wereski, Mantas
+        Mikulėnas, Marcel Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Maurizio Lombardi,
+        Michael Biebl, Michael Chapman, Michael Marineau, Michal
+        Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Olivier Brunel, Patrik Flykt, Peter
+        Hutterer, Przemyslaw Kedzierski, Rami Rosen, Ray Strode,
+        Richard Schütz, Richard W.M. Jones, Ronny Chevalier, Ross
+        Lagerwall, Sean Young, Stanisław Pitucha, Susant Sahani,
+        Thomas Haller, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen,
+        Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Vicente Olivert
+        Riera, WaLyong Cho, Wesley Dawson, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2014-12-10
+        * journalctl gained the new options -t/--identifier= to match
+          on the syslog identifier (aka "tag"), as well as --utc to
+          show log timestamps in the UTC timezone. journalctl now also
+          accepts -n/--lines=all to disable line capping in a pager.
+        * journalctl gained a new switch, --flush, that synchronously
+          flushes logs from /run/log/journal to /var/log/journal if
+          persistent storage is enabled. systemd-journal-flush.service
+          now waits until the operation is complete.
+        * Services can notify the manager before they start a reload
+          (by sending RELOADING=1) or shutdown (by sending
+          STOPPING=1). This allows the manager to track and show the
+          internal state of daemons and closes a race condition when
+          the process is still running but has closed its D-Bus
+          connection.
+        * Services with Type=oneshot do not have to have any ExecStart
+          commands anymore.
+        * User units are now loaded also from
+          $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR/systemd/user/. This is similar to the
+          /run/systemd/user directory that was already previously
+          supported, but is under the control of the user.
+        * Job timeouts (i.e. timeouts on the time a job that is
+          queued stays in the run queue) can now optionally result in
+          immediate reboot or power-off actions (JobTimeoutAction= and
+          JobTimeoutRebootArgument=). This is useful on ".target"
+          units, to limit the maximum time a target remains
+          undispatched in the run queue, and to trigger an emergency
+          operation in such a case. This is now used by default to
+          turn off the system if boot-up (as defined by everything in
+ hangs and does not complete for at least
+          15min. Also, if power-off or reboot hang for at least 30min
+          an immediate power-off/reboot operation is triggered. This
+          functionality is particularly useful to increase reliability
+          on embedded devices, but also on laptops which might
+          accidentally get powered on when carried in a backpack and
+          whose boot stays stuck in a hard disk encryption passphrase
+          question.
+        * systemd-logind can be configured to also handle lid switch
+          events even when the machine is docked or multiple displays
+          are attached (HandleLidSwitchDocked= option).
+        * A helper binary and a service have been added which can be
+          used to resume from hibernation in the initramfs. A
+          generator will parse the resume= option on the kernel
+          command line to trigger resume.
+        * A user console daemon systemd-consoled has been
+          added. Currently, it is a preview, and will so far open a
+          single terminal on each session of the user marked as
+          Desktop=systemd-console.
+        * Route metrics can be specified for DHCP routes added by
+          systemd-networkd.
+        * The SELinux context of socket-activated services can be set
+          from the information provided by the networking stack
+          (SELinuxContextFromNet= option).
+        * Userspace firmware loading support has been removed and
+          the minimum supported kernel version is thus bumped to 3.7.
+        * Timeout for udev workers has been increased from 1 to 3
+          minutes, but a warning will be printed after 1 minute to
+          help diagnose kernel modules that take a long time to load.
+        * Udev rules can now remove tags on devices with TAG-="foobar".
+        * systemd's readahead implementation has been removed. In many
+          circumstances it didn't give expected benefits even for
+          rotational disk drives and was becoming less relevant in the
+          age of SSDs. As none of the developers has been using
+          rotating media anymore, and nobody stepped up to actively
+          maintain this component of systemd it has now been removed.
+        * Swap units can use Options= to specify discard options.
+          Discard options specified for swaps in /etc/fstab are now
+          respected.
+        * Docker containers are now detected as a separate type of
+          virtualization.
+        * The Password Agent protocol gained support for queries where
+          the user input is shown, useful e.g. for user names.
+          systemd-ask-password gained a new --echo option to turn that
+          on.
+        * The default sysctl.d/ snippets will now set:
+                net.core.default_qdisc = fq_codel
+          This selects Fair Queuing Controlled Delay as the default
+          queuing discipline for network interfaces. fq_codel helps
+          fight the network bufferbloat problem. It is believed to be
+          a good default with no tuning required for most workloads.
+          Downstream distributions may override this choice. On 10Gbit
+          servers that do not do forwarding, "fq" may perform better.
+          Systems without a good clocksource should use "pfifo_fast".
+        * If kdbus is enabled during build a new option BusPolicy= is
+          available for service units, that allows locking all service
+          processes into a stricter bus policy, in order to limit
+          access to various bus services, or even hide most of them
+          from the service's view entirely.
+        * networkctl will now show the .network and .link file
+          networkd has applied to a specific interface.
+        * sd-login gained a new API call sd_session_get_desktop() to
+          query which desktop environment has been selected for a
+          session.
+        * UNIX utmp support is now compile-time optional to support
+          legacy-free systems.
+        * systemctl gained two new commands "add-wants" and
+          "add-requires" for pulling in units from specific targets
+          easily.
+        * If the word "rescue" is specified on the kernel command line
+          the system will now boot into rescue mode (aka
+, which was previously available only by
+          specifying "1" or "" on the kernel
+          command line. This new kernel command line option nicely
+          mirrors the already existing "emergency" kernel command line
+          option.
+        * New kernel command line options mount.usr=, mount.usrflags=,
+          mount.usrfstype= have been added that match root=, rootflags=,
+          rootfstype= but allow mounting a specific file system to
+          /usr.
+        * The $NOTIFY_SOCKET is now also passed to control processes of
+          services, not only the main process.
+        * This version reenables support for fsck's -l switch. This
+          means at least version v2.25 of util-linux is required for
+          operation, otherwise dead-locks on device nodes may
+          occur. Again: you need to update util-linux to at least
+          v2.25 when updating systemd to v217.
+        * The "multi-seat-x" tool has been removed from systemd, as
+          its functionality has been integrated into X servers 1.16,
+          and the tool is hence redundant. It is recommended to update
+          display managers invoking this tool to simply invoke X
+          directly from now on, again.
+        * Support for the new ALLOW_INTERACTIVE_AUTHORIZATION D-Bus
+          message flag has been added for all of systemd's polkit
+          authenticated method calls has been added. In particular this
+          now allows optional interactive authorization via polkit for
+          many of PID1's privileged operations such as unit file
+          enabling and disabling.
+        * "udevadm hwdb --update" learnt a new switch "--usr" for
+          placing the rebuilt hardware database in /usr instead of
+          /etc. When used only hardware database entries stored in
+          /usr will be used, and any user database entries in /etc are
+          ignored. This functionality is useful for vendors to ship a
+          pre-built database on systems where local configuration is
+          unnecessary or unlikely.
+        * Calendar time specifications in .timer units now also
+          understand the strings "semi-annually", "quarterly" and
+          "minutely" as shortcuts (in addition to the preexisting
+          "annually", "hourly", …).
+        * systemd-tmpfiles will now correctly create files in /dev
+          at boot which are marked for creation only at boot. It is
+          recommended to always create static device nodes with 'c!'
+          and 'b!', so that they are created only at boot and not
+          overwritten at runtime.
+        * When the watchdog logic is used for a service (WatchdogSec=)
+          and the watchdog timeout is hit the service will now be
+          terminated with SIGABRT (instead of just SIGTERM), in order
+          to make sure a proper coredump and backtrace is
+          generated. This ensures that hanging services will result in
+          similar coredump/backtrace behaviour as services that hit a
+          segmentation fault.
+        Contributions from: Andreas Henriksson, Andrei Borzenkov,
+        Angus Gibson, Ansgar Burchardt, Ben Wolsieffer, Brandon L.
+        Black, Christian Hesse, Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Buch,
+        Daniele Medri, Daniel Mack, Dan Williams, Dave Reisner, David
+        Herrmann, David Sommerseth, David Strauss, Emil Renner
+        Berthing, Eric Cook, Evangelos Foutras, Filipe Brandenburger,
+        Gustavo Sverzut Barbieri, Hans de Goede, Harald Hoyer, Hristo
+        Venev, Hugo Grostabussiat, Ivan Shapovalov, Jan Janssen, Jan
+        Synacek, Jonathan Liu, Juho Son, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers, Klaus
+        Purer, Koen Kooi, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Lukasz
+        Skalski, Łukasz Stelmach, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel Holtmann,
+        Marius Tessmann, Marko Myllynen, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl,
+        Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Michael Scherer, Michal
+        Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Miroslav Lichvar, Patrik Flykt,
+        Philippe De Swert, Piotr Drąg, Rahul Sundaram, Richard
+        Weinberger, Robert Milasan, Ronny Chevalier, Ruben Kerkhof,
+        Santiago Vila, Sergey Ptashnick, Simon McVittie, Sjoerd
+        Simons, Stefan Brüns, Steven Allen, Steven Noonan, Susant
+        Sahani, Sylvain Plantefève, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen,
+        Timofey Titovets, Tobias Hunger, Tom Gundersen, Torstein
+        Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, WaLyong Cho, Zbigniew
+        Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2014-10-28
+        * timedated no longer reads NTP implementation unit names from
+          /usr/lib/systemd/ntp-units.d/*.list. Alternative NTP
+          implementations should add a
+            Conflicts=systemd-timesyncd.service
+          to their unit files to take over and replace systemd's NTP
+          default functionality.
+        * systemd-sysusers gained a new line type "r" for configuring
+          which UID/GID ranges to allocate system users/groups
+          from. Lines of type "u" may now add an additional column
+          that specifies the home directory for the system user to be
+          created. Also, systemd-sysusers may now optionally read user
+          information from STDIN instead of a file. This is useful for
+          invoking it from RPM preinst scriptlets that need to create
+          users before the first RPM file is installed since these
+          files might need to be owned by them. A new
+          %sysusers_create_inline RPM macro has been introduced to do
+          just that. systemd-sysusers now updates the shadow files as
+          well as the user/group databases, which should enhance
+          compatibility with certain tools like grpck.
+        * A number of bus APIs of PID 1 now optionally consult polkit to
+          permit access for otherwise unprivileged clients under certain
+          conditions. Note that this currently doesn't support
+          interactive authentication yet, but this is expected to be
+          added eventually, too.
+        * /etc/machine-info now has new fields for configuring the
+          deployment environment of the machine, as well as the
+          location of the machine. hostnamectl has been updated with
+          new command to update these fields.
+        * systemd-timesyncd has been updated to automatically acquire
+          NTP server information from systemd-networkd, which might
+          have been discovered via DHCP.
+        * systemd-resolved now includes a caching DNS stub resolver
+          and a complete LLMNR name resolution implementation. A new
+          NSS module "nss-resolve" has been added which can be used
+          instead of glibc's own "nss-dns" to resolve hostnames via
+          systemd-resolved. Hostnames, addresses and arbitrary RRs may
+          be resolved via systemd-resolved D-Bus APIs. In contrast to
+          the glibc internal resolver systemd-resolved is aware of
+          multi-homed system, and keeps DNS server and caches separate
+          and per-interface. Queries are sent simultaneously on all
+          interfaces that have DNS servers configured, in order to
+          properly handle VPNs and local LANs which might resolve
+          separate sets of domain names. systemd-resolved may acquire
+          DNS server information from systemd-networkd automatically,
+          which in turn might have discovered them via DHCP. A tool
+          "systemd-resolve-host" has been added that may be used to
+          query the DNS logic in resolved. systemd-resolved implements
+          IDNA and automatically uses IDNA or UTF-8 encoding depending
+          on whether classic DNS or LLMNR is used as transport. In the
+          next releases we intend to add a DNSSEC and mDNS/DNS-SD
+          implementation to systemd-resolved.
+        * A new NSS module nss-mymachines has been added, that
+          automatically resolves the names of all local registered
+          containers to their respective IP addresses.
+        * A new client tool "networkctl" for systemd-networkd has been
+          added. It currently is entirely passive and will query
+          networking configuration from udev, rtnetlink and networkd,
+          and present it to the user in a very friendly
+          way. Eventually, we hope to extend it to become a full
+          control utility for networkd.
+        * .socket units gained a new DeferAcceptSec= setting that
+          controls the kernels' TCP_DEFER_ACCEPT sockopt for
+          TCP. Similarly, support for controlling TCP keep-alive
+          settings has been added (KeepAliveTimeSec=,
+          KeepAliveIntervalSec=, KeepAliveProbes=). Also, support for
+          turning off Nagle's algorithm on TCP has been added
+          (NoDelay=).
+        * logind learned a new session type "web", for use in projects
+          like Cockpit which register web clients as PAM sessions.
+        * timer units with at least one OnCalendar= setting will now
+          be started only after has been
+          reached. This way they will not elapse before the system
+          clock has been corrected by a local NTP client or
+          similar. This is particular useful on RTC-less embedded
+          machines, that come up with an invalid system clock.
+        * systemd-nspawn's --network-veth= switch should now result in
+          stable MAC addresses for both the outer and the inner side
+          of the link.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --volatile= switch for running
+          container instances with /etc or /var unpopulated.
+        * The kdbus client code has been updated to use the new Linux
+          3.17 memfd subsystem instead of the old kdbus-specific one.
+        * systemd-networkd's DHCP client and server now support
+          FORCERENEW. There are also new configuration options to
+          configure the vendor client identifier and broadcast mode
+          for DHCP.
+        * systemd will no longer inform the kernel about the current
+          timezone, as this is necessarily incorrect and racy as the
+          kernel has no understanding of DST and similar
+          concepts. This hence means FAT timestamps will be always
+          considered UTC, similar to what Android is already
+          doing. Also, when the RTC is configured to the local time
+          (rather than UTC) systemd will never synchronize back to it,
+          as this might confuse Windows at a later boot.
+        * systemd-analyze gained a new command "verify" for offline
+          validation of unit files.
+        * systemd-networkd gained support for a couple of additional
+          settings for bonding networking setups. Also, the metric for
+          statically configured routes may now be configured. For
+          network interfaces where this is appropriate the peer IP
+          address may now be configured.
+        * systemd-networkd's DHCP client will no longer request
+          broadcasting by default, as this tripped up some networks.
+          For hardware where broadcast is required the feature should
+          be switched back on using RequestBroadcast=yes.
+        * systemd-networkd will now set up IPv4LL addresses (when
+          enabled) even if DHCP is configured successfully.
+        * udev will now default to respect network device names given
+          by the kernel when the kernel indicates that these are
+          predictable. This behavior can be tweaked by changing
+          NamePolicy= in the relevant .link file.
+        * A new library systemd-terminal has been added that
+          implements full TTY stream parsing and rendering. This
+          library is supposed to be used later on for implementing a
+          full userspace VT subsystem, replacing the current kernel
+          implementation.
+        * A new tool systemd-journal-upload has been added to push
+          journal data to a remote system running
+          systemd-journal-remote.
+        * journald will no longer forward all local data to another
+          running syslog daemon. This change has been made because
+          rsyslog (which appears to be the most commonly used syslog
+          implementation these days) no longer makes use of this, and
+          instead pulls the data out of the journal on its own. Since
+          forwarding the messages to a non-existent syslog server is
+          more expensive than we assumed we have now turned this
+          off. If you run a syslog server that is not a recent rsyslog
+          version, you have to turn this option on again
+          (ForwardToSyslog= in journald.conf).
+        * journald now optionally supports the LZ4 compressor for
+          larger journal fields. This compressor should perform much
+          better than XZ which was the previous default.
+        * machinectl now shows the IP addresses of local containers,
+          if it knows them, plus the interface name of the container.
+        * A new tool "systemd-escape" has been added that makes it
+          easy to escape strings to build unit names and similar.
+        * sd_notify() messages may now include a new ERRNO= field
+          which is parsed and collected by systemd and shown among the
+          "systemctl status" output for a service.
+        * A new component "systemd-firstboot" has been added that
+          queries the most basic systemd information (timezone,
+          hostname, root password) interactively on first
+          boot. Alternatively it may also be used to provision these
+          things offline on OS images installed into directories.
+        * The default sysctl.d/ snippets will now set
+                net.ipv4.conf.default.promote_secondaries=1
+          This has the benefit of no flushing secondary IP addresses
+          when primary addresses are removed.
+        Contributions from: Ansgar Burchardt, Bastien Nocera, Colin
+        Walters, Dan Dedrick, Daniel Buch, Daniel Korostil, Daniel
+        Mack, Dan Williams, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Denis
+        Kenzior, Eelco Dolstra, Eric Cook, Hannes Reinecke, Harald
+        Hoyer, Hong Shick Pak, Hui Wang, Jean-André Santoni, Jóhann
+        B. Guðmundsson, Jon Severinsson, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers, Kevin
+        Wells, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas,
+        Marc-Antoine Perennou, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael
+        Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar,
+        Miguel Angel Ajo, Mike Gilbert, Olivier Brunel, Robert
+        Schiele, Ronny Chevalier, Simon McVittie, Sjoerd Simons, Stef
+        Walter, Steven Noonan, Susant Sahani, Tanu Kaskinen, Thomas
+        Blume, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Timofey Titovets,
+        Tobias Geerinckx-Rice, Tomasz Torcz, Tom Gundersen, Umut
+        Tezduyar Lindskog, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2014-08-19
+        * A new tool systemd-sysusers has been added. This tool
+          creates system users and groups in /etc/passwd and
+          /etc/group, based on static declarative system user/group
+          definitions in /usr/lib/sysusers.d/. This is useful to
+          enable factory resets and volatile systems that boot up with
+          an empty /etc directory, and thus need system users and
+          groups created during early boot. systemd now also ships
+          with two default sysusers.d/ files for the most basic
+          users and groups systemd and the core operating system
+          require.
+        * A new tmpfiles snippet has been added that rebuilds the
+          essential files in /etc on boot, should they be missing.
+        * A directive for ensuring automatic clean-up of
+          /var/cache/man/ has been removed from the default
+          configuration. This line should now be shipped by the man
+          implementation. The necessary change has been made to the
+          man-db implementation. Note that you need to update your man
+          implementation to one that ships this line, otherwise no
+          automatic clean-up of /var/cache/man will take place.
+        * A new condition ConditionNeedsUpdate= has been added that
+          may conditionalize services to only run when /etc or /var
+          are "older" than the vendor operating system resources in
+          /usr. This is useful for reconstructing or updating /etc
+          after an offline update of /usr or a factory reset, on the
+          next reboot. Services that want to run once after such an
+          update or reset should use this condition and order
+          themselves before the new systemd-update-done.service, which
+          will mark the two directories as fully updated. A number of
+          service files have been added making use of this, to rebuild
+          the udev hardware database, the journald message catalog and
+          dynamic loader cache (ldconfig). The systemd-sysusers tool
+          described above also makes use of this now. With this in
+          place it is now possible to start up a minimal operating
+          system with /etc empty cleanly. For more information on the
+          concepts involved see this recent blog story:
+        * A new system group "input" has been introduced, and all
+          input device nodes get this group assigned. This is useful
+          for system-level software to get access to input devices. It
+          complements what is already done for "audio" and "video".
+        * systemd-networkd learnt minimal DHCPv4 server support in
+          addition to the existing DHCPv4 client support. It also
+          learnt DHCPv6 client and IPv6 Router Solicitation client
+          support. The DHCPv4 client gained support for static routes
+          passed in from the server. Note that the [DHCPv4] section
+          known in older systemd-networkd versions has been renamed to
+          [DHCP] and is now also used by the DHCPv6 client. Existing
+          .network files using settings of this section should be
+          updated, though compatibility is maintained. Optionally, the
+          client hostname may now be sent to the DHCP server.
+        * networkd gained support for vxlan virtual networks as well
+          as tun/tap and dummy devices.
+        * networkd gained support for automatic allocation of address
+          ranges for interfaces from a system-wide pool of
+          addresses. This is useful for dynamically managing a large
+          number of interfaces with a single network configuration
+          file. In particular this is useful to easily assign
+          appropriate IP addresses to the veth links of a large number
+          of nspawn instances.
+        * RPM macros for processing sysusers, sysctl and binfmt
+          drop-in snippets at package installation time have been
+          added.
+        * The /etc/os-release file should now be placed in
+          /usr/lib/os-release. The old location is automatically
+          created as symlink. /usr/lib is the more appropriate
+          location of this file, since it shall actually describe the
+          vendor operating system shipped in /usr, and not the
+          configuration stored in /etc.
+        * .mount units gained a new boolean SloppyOptions= setting
+          that maps to mount(8)'s -s option which enables permissive
+          parsing of unknown mount options.
+        * tmpfiles learnt a new "L+" directive which creates a symlink
+          but (unlike "L") deletes a pre-existing file first, should
+          it already exist and not already be the correct
+          symlink. Similarly, "b+", "c+" and "p+" directives have been
+          added as well, which create block and character devices, as
+          well as fifos in the filesystem, possibly removing any
+          pre-existing files of different types.
+        * For tmpfiles' "L", "L+", "C" and "C+" directives the final
+          'argument' field (which so far specified the source to
+          symlink/copy the files from) is now optional. If omitted the
+          same file os copied from /usr/share/factory/ suffixed by the
+          full destination path. This is useful for populating /etc
+          with essential files, by copying them from vendor defaults
+          shipped in /usr/share/factory/etc.
+        * A new command "systemctl preset-all" has been added that
+          applies the service preset settings to all installed unit
+          files. A new switch --preset-mode= has been added that
+          controls whether only enable or only disable operations
+          shall be executed.
+        * A new command "systemctl is-system-running" has been added
+          that allows checking the overall state of the system, for
+          example whether it is fully up and running.
+        * When the system boots up with an empty /etc, the equivalent
+          to "systemctl preset-all" is executed during early boot, to
+          make sure all default services are enabled after a factory
+          reset.
+        * systemd now contains a minimal preset file that enables the
+          most basic services systemd ships by default.
+        * Unit files' [Install] section gained a new DefaultInstance=
+          field for defining the default instance to create if a
+          template unit is enabled with no instance specified.
+        * A new passive target has been added
+          that may be used by services that need to make they run and
+          finish before the first LUKS cryptographic device is set up.
+        * The /dev/loop-control and /dev/btrfs-control device nodes
+          are now owned by the "disk" group by default, opening up
+          access to this group.
+        * systemd-coredump will now automatically generate a
+          stack trace of all core dumps taking place on the system,
+          based on elfutils' libdw library. This stack trace is logged
+          to the journal.
+        * systemd-coredump may now optionally store coredumps directly
+          on disk (in /var/lib/systemd/coredump, possibly compressed),
+          instead of storing them unconditionally in the journal. This
+          mode is the new default. A new configuration file
+          /etc/systemd/coredump.conf has been added to configure this
+          and other parameters of systemd-coredump.
+        * coredumpctl gained a new "info" verb to show details about a
+          specific coredump. A new switch "-1" has also been added
+          that makes sure to only show information about the most
+          recent entry instead of all entries. Also, as the tool is
+          generally useful now the "systemd-" prefix of the binary
+          name has been removed. Distributions that want to maintain
+          compatibility with the old name should add a symlink from
+          the old name to the new name.
+        * journald's SplitMode= now defaults to "uid". This makes sure
+          that unprivileged users can access their own coredumps with
+          coredumpctl without restrictions.
+        * New kernel command line options "systemd.wants=" (for
+          pulling an additional unit during boot), "systemd.mask="
+          (for masking a specific unit for the boot), and
+          "systemd.debug-shell" (for enabling the debug shell on tty9)
+          have been added. This is implemented in the new generator
+          "systemd-debug-generator".
+        * systemd-nspawn will now by default filter a couple of
+          syscalls for containers, among them those required for
+          kernel module loading, direct x86 IO port access, swap
+          management, and kexec. Most importantly though
+          open_by_handle_at() is now prohibited for containers,
+          closing a hole similar to a recently discussed vulnerability
+          in docker regarding access to files on file hierarchies the
+          container should normally not have access to. Note that, for
+          nspawn, we generally make no security claims anyway (and
+          this is explicitly documented in the man page), so this is
+          just a fix for one of the most obvious problems.
+        * A new man page file-hierarchy(7) has been added that
+          contains a minimized, modernized version of the file system
+          layout systemd expects, similar in style to the FHS
+          specification or hier(5). A new tool systemd-path(1) has
+          been added to query many of these paths for the local
+          machine and user.
+        * Automatic time-based clean-up of $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR is no
+          longer done. Since the directory now has a per-user size
+          limit, and is cleaned on logout this appears unnecessary,
+          in particular since this now brings the lifecycle of this
+          directory closer in line with how IPC objects are handled.
+        * systemd.pc now exports a number of additional directories,
+          including $libdir (which is useful to identify the library
+          path for the primary architecture of the system), and a
+          couple of drop-in directories.
+        * udev's predictable network interface names now use the dev_port
+          sysfs attribute, introduced in linux 3.15 instead of dev_id to
+          distinguish between ports of the same PCI function. dev_id should
+          only be used for ports using the same HW address, hence the need
+          for dev_port.
+        * machined has been updated to export the OS version of a
+          container (read from /etc/os-release and
+          /usr/lib/os-release) on the bus. This is now shown in
+          "machinectl status" for a machine.
+        * A new service setting RestartForceExitStatus= has been
+          added. If configured to a set of exit signals or process
+          return values, the service will be restarted when the main
+          daemon process exits with any of them, regardless of the
+          Restart= setting.
+        * systemctl's -H switch for connecting to remote systemd
+          machines has been extended so that it may be used to
+          directly connect to a specific container on the
+          host. "systemctl -H root@foobar:waldi" will now connect as
+          user "root" to host "foobar", and then proceed directly to
+          the container named "waldi". Note that currently you have to
+          authenticate as user "root" for this to work, as entering
+          containers is a privileged operation.
+        Contributions from: Andreas Henriksson, Benjamin Steinwender,
+        Carl Schaefer, Christian Hesse, Colin Ian King, Cristian
+        Rodríguez, Daniel Mack, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Eugene
+        Yakubovich, Filipe Brandenburger, Frederic Crozat, Hristo
+        Venev, Jan Engelhardt, Jonathan Boulle, Kay Sievers, Lennart
+        Poettering, Luke Shumaker, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marc-Antoine
+        Perennou, Marcel Holtmann, Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich,
+        Michał Bartoszkiewicz, Michal Sekletar, Patrik Flykt, Ronan Le
+        Martret, Ronny Chevalier, Ruediger Oertel, Steven Noonan,
+        Susant Sahani, Thadeu Lima de Souza Cascardo, Thomas Hindoe
+        Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Tom Hirst, Umut Tezduyar
+        Lindskog, Uoti Urpala, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2014-07-03
+        * As an experimental feature, udev now tries to lock the
+          disk device node (flock(LOCK_SH|LOCK_NB)) while it
+          executes events for the disk or any of its partitions.
+          Applications like partitioning programs can lock the
+          disk device node (flock(LOCK_EX)) and claim temporary
+          device ownership that way; udev will entirely skip all event
+          handling for this disk and its partitions. If the disk
+          was opened for writing, the close will trigger a partition
+          table rescan in udev's "watch" facility, and if needed
+          synthesize "change" events for the disk and all its partitions.
+          This is now unconditionally enabled, and if it turns out to
+          cause major problems, we might turn it on only for specific
+          devices, or might need to disable it entirely. Device Mapper
+          devices are excluded from this logic.
+        * We temporarily dropped the "-l" switch for fsck invocations,
+          since they collide with the flock() logic above. util-linux
+          upstream has been changed already to avoid this conflict,
+          and we will re-add "-l" as soon as util-linux with this
+          change has been released.
+        * The dependency on libattr has been removed. Since a long
+          time, the extended attribute calls have moved to glibc, and
+          libattr is thus unnecessary.
+        * Virtualization detection works without privileges now. This
+          means the systemd-detect-virt binary no longer requires
+          CAP_SYS_PTRACE file capabilities, and our daemons can run
+          with fewer privileges.
+        * systemd-networkd now runs under its own "systemd-network"
+          user. It retains the CAP_NET_ADMIN, CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE,
+          CAP_NET_BROADCAST, CAP_NET_RAW capabilities though, but
+          loses the ability to write to files owned by root this way.
+        * Similarly, systemd-resolved now runs under its own
+          "systemd-resolve" user with no capabilities remaining.
+        * Similarly, systemd-bus-proxyd now runs under its own
+          "systemd-bus-proxy" user with only CAP_IPC_OWNER remaining.
+        * systemd-networkd gained support for setting up "veth"
+          virtual Ethernet devices for container connectivity, as well
+          as GRE and VTI tunnels.
+        * systemd-networkd will no longer automatically attempt to
+          manually load kernel modules necessary for certain tunnel
+          transports. Instead, it is assumed the kernel loads them
+          automatically when required. This only works correctly on
+          very new kernels. On older kernels, please consider adding
+          the kernel modules to /etc/modules-load.d/ as a work-around.
+        * The resolv.conf file systemd-resolved generates has been
+          moved to /run/systemd/resolve/. If you have a symlink from
+          /etc/resolv.conf, it might be necessary to correct it.
+        * Two new service settings, ProtectHome= and ProtectSystem=,
+          have been added. When enabled, they will make the user data
+          (such as /home) inaccessible or read-only and the system
+          (such as /usr) read-only, for specific services. This allows
+          very light-weight per-service sandboxing to avoid
+          modifications of user data or system files from
+          services. These two new switches have been enabled for all
+          of systemd's long-running services, where appropriate.
+        * Socket units gained new SocketUser= and SocketGroup=
+          settings to set the owner user and group of AF_UNIX sockets
+          and FIFOs in the file system.
+        * Socket units gained a new RemoveOnStop= setting. If enabled,
+          all FIFOS and sockets in the file system will be removed
+          when the specific socket unit is stopped.
+        * Socket units gained a new Symlinks= setting. It takes a list
+          of symlinks to create to file system sockets or FIFOs
+          created by the specific Unix sockets. This is useful to
+          manage symlinks to socket nodes with the same lifecycle as
+          the socket itself.
+        * The /dev/log socket and /dev/initctl FIFO have been moved to
+          /run, and have been replaced by symlinks. This allows
+          connecting to these facilities even if PrivateDevices=yes is
+          used for a service (which makes /dev/log itself unavailable,
+          but /run is left). This also has the benefit of ensuring
+          that /dev only contains device nodes, directories and
+          symlinks, and nothing else.
+        * sd-daemon gained two new calls sd_pid_notify() and
+          sd_pid_notifyf(). They are similar to sd_notify() and
+          sd_notifyf(), but allow overriding of the source PID of
+          notification messages if permissions permit this. This is
+          useful to send notify messages on behalf of a different
+          process (for example, the parent process). The
+          systemd-notify tool has been updated to make use of this
+          when sending messages (so that notification messages now
+          originate from the shell script invoking systemd-notify and
+          not the systemd-notify process itself. This should minimize
+          a race where systemd fails to associate notification
+          messages to services when the originating process already
+          vanished.
+        * A new "on-abnormal" setting for Restart= has been added. If
+          set, it will result in automatic restarts on all "abnormal"
+          reasons for a process to exit, which includes unclean
+          signals, core dumps, timeouts and watchdog timeouts, but
+          does not include clean and unclean exit codes or clean
+          signals. Restart=on-abnormal is an alternative for
+          Restart=on-failure for services that shall be able to
+          terminate and avoid restarts on certain errors, by
+          indicating so with an unclean exit code. Restart=on-failure
+          or Restart=on-abnormal is now the recommended setting for
+          all long-running services.
+        * If the InaccessibleDirectories= service setting points to a
+          mount point (or if there are any submounts contained within
+          it), it is now attempted to completely unmount it, to make
+          the file systems truly unavailable for the respective
+          service.
+        * The ReadOnlyDirectories= service setting and
+          systemd-nspawn's --read-only parameter are now recursively
+          applied to all submounts, too.
+        * Mount units may now be created transiently via the bus APIs.
+        * The support for SysV and LSB init scripts has been removed
+          from the systemd daemon itself. Instead, it is now
+          implemented as a generator that creates native systemd units
+          from these scripts when needed. This enables us to remove a
+          substantial amount of legacy code from PID 1, following the
+          fact that many distributions only ship a very small number
+          of LSB/SysV init scripts nowadays.
+        * Privileged Xen (dom0) domains are not considered
+          virtualization anymore by the virtualization detection
+          logic. After all, they generally have unrestricted access to
+          the hardware and usually are used to manage the unprivileged
+          (domU) domains.
+        * systemd-tmpfiles gained a new "C" line type, for copying
+          files or entire directories.
+        * systemd-tmpfiles "m" lines are now fully equivalent to "z"
+          lines. So far, they have been non-globbing versions of the
+          latter, and have thus been redundant. In future, it is
+          recommended to only use "z". "m" has hence been removed
+          from the documentation, even though it stays supported.
+        * A tmpfiles snippet to recreate the most basic structure in
+          /var has been added. This is enough to create the /var/run →
+          /run symlink and create a couple of structural
+          directories. This allows systems to boot up with an empty or
+          volatile /var. Of course, while with this change, the core OS
+          now is capable with dealing with a volatile /var, not all
+          user services are ready for it. However, we hope that sooner
+          or later, many service daemons will be changed upstream so
+          that they are able to automatically create their necessary
+          directories in /var at boot, should they be missing. This is
+          the first step to allow state-less systems that only require
+          the vendor image for /usr to boot.
+        * systemd-nspawn has gained a new --tmpfs= switch to mount an
+          empty tmpfs instance to a specific directory. This is
+          particularly useful for making use of the automatic
+          reconstruction of /var (see above), by passing --tmpfs=/var.
+        * Access modes specified in tmpfiles snippets may now be
+          prefixed with "~", which indicates that they shall be masked
+          by whether the existing file or directory is currently
+          writable, readable or executable at all. Also, if specified,
+          the sgid/suid/sticky bits will be masked for all
+          non-directories.
+        * A new passive target unit "" has been
+          added which is useful for services that shall run before any
+          network is configured, for example firewall scripts.
+        * The "floppy" group that previously owned the /dev/fd*
+          devices is no longer used. The "disk" group is now used
+          instead. Distributions should probably deprecate usage of
+          this group.
+        Contributions from: Camilo Aguilar, Christian Hesse, Colin Ian
+        King, Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Buch, Dave Reisner, David
+        Strauss, Denis Tikhomirov, John, Jonathan Liu, Kay Sievers,
+        Lennart Poettering, Mantas Mikulėnas, Mark Eichin, Ronny
+        Chevalier, Susant Sahani, Thomas Blume, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel
+        Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Zbigniew
+        Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2014-06-11
+        * A new "systemd-timesyncd" daemon has been added for
+          synchronizing the system clock across the network. It
+          implements an SNTP client. In contrast to NTP
+          implementations such as chrony or the NTP reference server,
+          this only implements a client side, and does not bother with
+          the full NTP complexity, focusing only on querying time from
+          one remote server and synchronizing the local clock to
+          it. Unless you intend to serve NTP to networked clients or
+          want to connect to local hardware clocks, this simple NTP
+          client should be more than appropriate for most
+          installations. The daemon runs with minimal privileges, and
+          has been hooked up with networkd to only operate when
+          network connectivity is available. The daemon saves the
+          current clock to disk every time a new NTP sync has been
+          acquired, and uses this to possibly correct the system clock
+          early at bootup, in order to accommodate for systems that
+          lack an RTC such as the Raspberry Pi and embedded devices,
+          and to make sure that time monotonically progresses on these
+          systems, even if it is not always correct. To make use of
+          this daemon, a new system user and group "systemd-timesync"
+          needs to be created on installation of systemd.
+        * The queue "seqnum" interface of libudev has been disabled, as
+          it was generally incompatible with device namespacing as
+          sequence numbers of devices go "missing" if the devices are
+          part of a different namespace.
+        * "systemctl list-timers" and "systemctl list-sockets" gained
+          a --recursive switch for showing units of these types also
+          for all local containers, similar in style to the already
+          supported --recursive switch for "systemctl list-units".
+        * A new RebootArgument= setting has been added for service
+          units, which may be used to specify a kernel reboot argument
+          to use when triggering reboots with StartLimitAction=.
+        * A new FailureAction= setting has been added for service
+          units which may be used to specify an operation to trigger
+          when a service fails. This works similarly to
+          StartLimitAction=, but unlike it, controls what is done
+          immediately rather than only after several attempts to
+          restart the service in question.
+        * hostnamed got updated to also expose the kernel name,
+          release, and version on the bus. This is useful for
+          executing commands like hostnamectl with the -H switch.
+          systemd-analyze makes use of this to properly display
+          details when running non-locally.
+        * The bootchart tool can now show cgroup information in the
+          graphs it generates.
+        * The CFS CPU quota cgroup attribute is now exposed for
+          services. The new CPUQuota= switch has been added for this
+          which takes a percentage value. Setting this will have the
+          result that a service may never get more CPU time than the
+          specified percentage, even if the machine is otherwise idle.
+        * systemd-networkd learned IPIP and SIT tunnel support.
+        * LSB init scripts exposing a dependency on $network will now
+          get a dependency on rather than simply
+ This should bring LSB handling closer to
+          what it was on SysV systems.
+        * A new kernel option has been added to control
+          how fsck shall deal with unclean file systems at boot.
+        * The (.ini) configuration file parser will now silently ignore
+          sections whose names begin with "X-". This may be used to maintain
+          application-specific extension sections in unit files.
+        * machined gained a new API to query the IP addresses of
+          registered containers. "machinectl status" has been updated
+          to show these addresses in its output.
+        * A new call sd_uid_get_display() has been added to the
+          sd-login APIs for querying the "primary" session of a
+          user. The "primary" session of the user is elected from the
+          user's sessions and generally a graphical session is
+          preferred over a text one.
+        * A minimal systemd-resolved daemon has been added. It
+          currently simply acts as a companion to systemd-networkd and
+          manages resolv.conf based on per-interface DNS
+          configuration, possibly supplied via DHCP. In the long run
+          we hope to extend this into a local DNSSEC enabled DNS and
+          mDNS cache.
+        * The systemd-networkd-wait-online tool is now enabled by
+          default. It will delay until a network
+          connection has been configured. The tool primarily integrates
+          with networkd, but will also make a best effort to make sense
+          of network configuration performed in some other way.
+        * Two new service options StartupCPUShares= and
+          StartupBlockIOWeight= have been added that work similarly to
+          CPUShares= and BlockIOWeight= however only apply during
+          system startup. This is useful to prioritize certain services
+          differently during bootup than during normal runtime.
+        * hostnamed has been changed to prefer the statically
+          configured hostname in /etc/hostname (unless set to
+          'localhost' or empty) over any dynamic one supplied by
+          dhcp. With this change, the rules for picking the hostname
+          match more closely the rules of other configuration settings
+          where the local administrator's configuration in /etc always
+          overrides any other settings.
+        Contributions from: Ali H. Caliskan, Alison Chaiken, Bas van
+        den Berg, Brandon Philips, Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Buch,
+        Dan Kilman, Dave Reisner, David Härdeman, David Herrmann,
+        David Strauss, Dimitris Spingos, Djalal Harouni, Eelco
+        Dolstra, Evan Nemerson, Florian Albrechtskirchinger, Greg
+        Kroah-Hartman, Harald Hoyer, Holger Hans Peter Freyther, Jan
+        Engelhardt, Jani Nikula, Jason St. John, Jeffrey Clark,
+        Jonathan Boulle, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Lukas
+        Nykryn, Lukasz Skalski, Łukasz Stelmach, Mantas Mikulėnas,
+        Marcel Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Matthew Monaco, Michael
+        Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Michal Sekletar, Mike Gilbert, Nis
+        Martensen, Patrik Flykt, Philip Lorenz, poma, Ray Strode,
+        Reyad Attiyat, Robert Milasan, Scott Thrasher, Stef Walter,
+        Steven Siloti, Susant Sahani, Tanu Kaskinen, Thomas Bächler,
+        Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar
+        Lindskog, WaLyong Cho, Will Woods, Zbigniew
+        Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Beijing, 2014-05-28
+        * When restoring the screen brightness at boot, stay away from
+          the darkest setting or from the lowest 5% of the available
+          range, depending on which is the larger value of both. This
+          should effectively protect the user from rebooting into a
+          black screen, should the brightness have been set to minimum
+          by accident.
+        * sd-login gained a new sd_machine_get_class() call to
+          determine the class ("vm" or "container") of a machine
+          registered with machined.
+        * sd-login gained new calls
+          sd_peer_get_{session,owner_uid,unit,user_unit,slice,machine_name}(),
+          to query the identity of the peer of a local AF_UNIX
+          connection. They operate similarly to their sd_pid_get_xyz()
+          counterparts.
+        * PID 1 will now maintain a system-wide system state engine
+          with the states "starting", "running", "degraded",
+          "maintenance", "stopping". These states are bound to system
+          startup, normal runtime, runtime with at least one failed
+          service, rescue/emergency mode and system shutdown. This
+          state is shown in the "systemctl status" output when no unit
+          name is passed. It is useful to determine system state, in
+          particularly when doing so for many systems or containers at
+          once.
+        * A new command "list-machines" has been added to "systemctl"
+          that lists all local OS containers and shows their system
+          state (see above), if systemd runs inside of them.
+        * systemctl gained a new "-r" switch to recursively enumerate
+          units on all local containers, when used with the
+          "list-unit" command (which is the default one that is
+          executed when no parameters are specified).
+        * The GPT automatic partition discovery logic will now honour
+          two GPT partition flags: one may be set on a partition to
+          cause it to be mounted read-only, and the other may be set
+          on a partition to ignore it during automatic discovery.
+        * Two new GPT type UUIDs have been added for automatic root
+          partition discovery, for 32-bit and 64-bit ARM. This is not
+          particularly useful for discovering the root directory on
+          these architectures during bare-metal boots (since UEFI is
+          not common there), but still very useful to allow booting of
+          ARM disk images in nspawn with the -i option.
+        * MAC addresses of interfaces created with nspawn's
+          --network-interface= switch will now be generated from the
+          machine name, and thus be stable between multiple invocations
+          of the container.
+        * logind will now automatically remove all IPC objects owned
+          by a user if she or he fully logs out. This makes sure that
+          users who are logged out cannot continue to consume IPC
+          resources. This covers SysV memory, semaphores and message
+          queues as well as POSIX shared memory and message
+          queues. Traditionally, SysV and POSIX IPC had no lifecycle
+          limits. With this functionality, that is corrected. This may
+          be turned off by using the RemoveIPC= switch of logind.conf.
+        * The systemd-machine-id-setup and tmpfiles tools gained a
+          --root= switch to operate on a specific root directory,
+          instead of /.
+        * journald can now forward logged messages to the TTYs of all
+          logged in users ("wall"). This is the default for all
+          emergency messages now.
+        * A new tool systemd-journal-remote has been added to stream
+          journal log messages across the network.
+        * /sys/fs/cgroup/ is now mounted read-only after all cgroup
+          controller trees are mounted into it. Note that the
+          directories mounted beneath it are not read-only. This is a
+          security measure and is particularly useful because glibc
+          actually includes a search logic to pick any tmpfs it can
+          find to implement shm_open() if /dev/shm is not available
+          (which it might very well be in namespaced setups).
+        * machinectl gained a new "poweroff" command to cleanly power
+          down a local OS container.
+        * The PrivateDevices= unit file setting will now also drop the
+          CAP_MKNOD capability from the capability bound set, and
+          imply DevicePolicy=closed.
+        * PrivateDevices=, PrivateNetwork= and PrivateTmp= is now used
+          comprehensively on all long-running systemd services where
+          this is appropriate.
+        * systemd-udevd will now run in a disassociated mount
+          namespace. To mount directories from udev rules, make sure to
+          pull in mount units via SYSTEMD_WANTS properties.
+        * The kdbus support gained support for uploading policy into
+          the kernel. sd-bus gained support for creating "monitoring"
+          connections that can eavesdrop into all bus communication
+          for debugging purposes.
+        * Timestamps may now be specified in seconds since the UNIX
+          epoch Jan 1st, 1970 by specifying "@" followed by the value
+          in seconds.
+        * Native tcpwrap support in systemd has been removed. tcpwrap
+          is old code, not really maintained anymore and has serious
+          shortcomings, and better options such as firewalls
+          exist. For setups that require tcpwrap usage, please
+          consider invoking your socket-activated service via tcpd,
+          like on traditional inetd.
+        * A new system.conf configuration option
+          DefaultTimerAccuracySec= has been added that controls the
+          default AccuracySec= setting of .timer units.
+        * Timer units gained a new WakeSystem= switch. If enabled,
+          timers configured this way will cause the system to resume
+          from system suspend (if the system supports that, which most
+          do these days).
+        * Timer units gained a new Persistent= switch. If enabled,
+          timers configured this way will save to disk when they have
+          been last triggered. This information is then used on next
+          reboot to possible execute overdue timer events, that
+          could not take place because the system was powered off.
+          This enables simple anacron-like behaviour for timer units.
+        * systemctl's "list-timers" will now also list the time a
+          timer unit was last triggered in addition to the next time
+          it will be triggered.
+        * systemd-networkd will now assign predictable IPv4LL
+          addresses to its local interfaces.
+        Contributions from: Brandon Philips, Daniel Buch, Daniel Mack,
+        Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Gerd Hoffmann, Greg
+        Kroah-Hartman, Hendrik Brueckner, Jason St. John, Josh
+        Triplett, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Marc-Antoine
+        Perennou, Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Miklos Vajna,
+        Patrik Flykt, poma, Sebastian Thorarensen, Thomas Bächler,
+        Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tomasz Torcz, Tom Gundersen,
+        Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Wieland Hoffmann, Zbigniew
+        Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2014-03-25
+        * A new unit file setting RestrictAddressFamilies= has been
+          added to restrict which socket address families unit
+          processes gain access to. This takes address family names
+          like "AF_INET" or "AF_UNIX", and is useful to minimize the
+          attack surface of services via exotic protocol stacks. This
+          is built on seccomp system call filters.
+        * Two new unit file settings RuntimeDirectory= and
+          RuntimeDirectoryMode= have been added that may be used to
+          manage a per-daemon runtime directories below /run. This is
+          an alternative for setting up directory permissions with
+          tmpfiles snippets, and has the advantage that the runtime
+          directory's lifetime is bound to the daemon runtime and that
+          the daemon starts up with an empty directory each time. This
+          is particularly useful when writing services that drop
+          privileges using the User= or Group= setting.
+        * The DeviceAllow= unit setting now supports globbing for
+          matching against device group names.
+        * The systemd configuration file system.conf gained new
+          settings DefaultCPUAccounting=, DefaultBlockIOAccounting=,
+          DefaultMemoryAccounting= to globally turn on/off accounting
+          for specific resources (cgroups) for all units. These
+          settings may still be overridden individually in each unit
+          though.
+        * systemd-gpt-auto-generator is now able to discover /srv and
+          root partitions in addition to /home and swap partitions. It
+          also supports LUKS-encrypted partitions now. With this in
+          place, automatic discovery of partitions to mount following
+          the Discoverable Partitions Specification
+          (
+          is now a lot more complete. This allows booting without
+          /etc/fstab and without root= on the kernel command line on
+          systems prepared appropriately.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --image= switch which allows
+          booting up disk images and Linux installations on any block
+          device that follow the Discoverable Partitions Specification
+          (see above). This means that installations made with
+          appropriately updated installers may now be started and
+          deployed using container managers, completely
+          unmodified. (We hope that libvirt-lxc will add support for
+          this feature soon, too.)
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --network-macvlan= setting to
+          set up a private macvlan interface for the
+          container. Similarly, systemd-networkd gained a new
+          Kind=macvlan setting in .netdev files.
+        * systemd-networkd now supports configuring local addresses
+          using IPv4LL.
+        * A new tool systemd-network-wait-online has been added to
+          synchronously wait for network connectivity using
+          systemd-networkd.
+        * The sd-bus.h bus API gained a new sd_bus_track object for
+          tracking the lifecycle of bus peers. Note that sd-bus.h is
+          still not a public API though (unless you specify
+          --enable-kdbus on the configure command line, which however
+          voids your warranty and you get no API stability guarantee).
+        * The $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR runtime directories for each user are
+          now individual tmpfs instances, which has the benefit of
+          introducing separate pools for each user, with individual
+          size limits, and thus making sure that unprivileged clients
+          can no longer negatively impact the system or other users by
+          filling up their $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR. A new logind.conf setting
+          RuntimeDirectorySize= has been introduced that allows
+          controlling the default size limit for all users. It
+          defaults to 10% of the available physical memory. This is no
+          replacement for quotas on tmpfs though (which the kernel
+          still does not support), as /dev/shm and /tmp are still
+          shared resources used by both the system and unprivileged
+          users.
+        * logind will now automatically turn off automatic suspending
+          on laptop lid close when more than one display is
+          connected. This was previously expected to be implemented
+          individually in desktop environments (such as GNOME),
+          however has been added to logind now, in order to fix a
+          boot-time race where a desktop environment might not have
+          been started yet and thus not been able to take an inhibitor
+          lock at the time where logind already suspends the system
+          due to a closed lid.
+        * logind will now wait at least 30s after each system
+          suspend/resume cycle, and 3min after system boot before
+          suspending the system due to a closed laptop lid. This
+          should give USB docking stations and similar enough time to
+          be probed and configured after system resume and boot in
+          order to then act as suspend blocker.
+        * systemd-run gained a new --property= setting which allows
+          initialization of resource control properties (and others)
+          for the created scope or service unit. Example: "systemd-run
+          --property=BlockIOWeight=10 updatedb" may be used to run
+          updatedb at a low block IO scheduling weight.
+        * systemd-run's --uid=, --gid=, --setenv=, --setenv= switches
+          now also work in --scope mode.
+        * When systemd is compiled with kdbus support, basic support
+          for enforced policies is now in place. (Note that enabling
+          kdbus still voids your warranty and no API compatibility
+          promises are made.)
+        Contributions from: Andrey Borzenkov, Ansgar Burchardt, Armin
+        K., Daniel Mack, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Djalal Harouni,
+        Harald Hoyer, Henrik Grindal Bakken, Jasper St. Pierre, Kay
+        Sievers, Kieran Clancy, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn,
+        Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel Holtmann, Mark Oteiza, Martin Pitt,
+        Mike Gilbert, Peter Rajnoha, poma, Samuli Suominen, Stef
+        Walter, Susant Sahani, Tero Roponen, Thomas Andersen, Thomas
+        Bächler, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tomasz Torcz, Tom
+        Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Uoti Urpala, Zachary Cook,
+        Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2014-03-12
+        * systemd will now relabel /dev after loading the SMACK policy
+          according to SMACK rules.
+        * A new unit file option AppArmorProfile= has been added to
+          set the AppArmor profile for the processes of a unit.
+        * A new condition check ConditionArchitecture= has been added
+          to conditionalize units based on the system architecture, as
+          reported by uname()'s "machine" field.
+        * systemd-networkd now supports matching on the system
+          virtualization, architecture, kernel command line, hostname
+          and machine ID.
+        * logind is now a lot more aggressive when suspending the
+          machine due to a closed laptop lid. Instead of acting only
+          on the lid close action, it will continuously watch the lid
+          status and act on it. This is useful for laptops where the
+          power button is on the outside of the chassis so that it can
+          be reached without opening the lid (such as the Lenovo
+          Yoga). On those machines, logind will now immediately
+          re-suspend the machine if the power button has been
+          accidentally pressed while the laptop was suspended and in a
+          backpack or similar.
+        * logind will now watch SW_DOCK switches and inhibit reaction
+          to the lid switch if it is pressed. This means that logind
+          will not suspend the machine anymore if the lid is closed
+          and the system is docked, if the laptop supports SW_DOCK
+          notifications via the input layer. Note that ACPI docking
+          stations do not generate this currently. Also note that this
+          logic is usually not fully sufficient and Desktop
+          Environments should take a lid switch inhibitor lock when an
+          external display is connected, as systemd will not watch
+          this on its own.
+        * nspawn will now make use of the devices cgroup controller by
+          default, and only permit creation of and access to the usual
+          API device nodes like /dev/null or /dev/random, as well as
+          access to (but not creation of) the pty devices.
+        * We will now ship a default .network file for
+          systemd-networkd that automatically configures DHCP for
+          network interfaces created by nspawn's --network-veth or
+          --network-bridge= switches.
+        * systemd will now understand the usual M, K, G, T suffixes
+          according to SI conventions (i.e. to the base 1000) when
+          referring to throughput and hardware metrics. It will stay
+          with IEC conventions (i.e. to the base 1024) for software
+          metrics, according to what is customary according to
+          Wikipedia. We explicitly document which base applies for
+          each configuration option.
+        * The DeviceAllow= setting in unit files now supports a syntax to
+          allow-list an entire group of devices node majors at once, based on
+          the /proc/devices listing. For example, with the string "char-pts",
+          it is now possible to allow-list all current and future pseudo-TTYs
+          at once.
+        * sd-event learned a new "post" event source. Event sources of
+          this type are triggered by the dispatching of any event
+          source of a type that is not "post". This is useful for
+          implementing clean-up and check event sources that are
+          triggered by other work being done in the program.
+        * systemd-networkd is no longer statically enabled, but uses
+          the usual [Install] sections so that it can be
+          enabled/disabled using systemctl. It still is enabled by
+          default however.
+        * When creating a veth interface pair with systemd-nspawn, the
+          host side will now be prefixed with "vb-" if
+          --network-bridge= is used, and with "ve-" if --network-veth
+          is used. This way, it is easy to distinguish these cases on
+          the host, for example to apply different configuration to
+          them with systemd-networkd.
+        * The compatibility libraries for,
+, and
+ do not make use of IFUNC
+          anymore. Instead, we now build multiple times
+          under these alternative names. This means that the footprint
+          is drastically increased, but given that these are
+          transitional compatibility libraries, this should not matter
+          much. This change has been made necessary to support the ARM
+          platform for these compatibility libraries, as the ARM
+          toolchain is not really at the same level as the toolchain
+          for other architectures like x86 and does not support
+          IFUNC. Please make sure to use --enable-compat-libs only
+          during a transitional period!
+        * The .include syntax has been deprecated and is not documented
+          anymore. Drop-in files in .d directories should be used instead.
+        Contributions from: Andreas Fuchs, Armin K., Colin Walters,
+        Daniel Mack, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Djalal Harouni,
+        Holger Schurig, Jason A. Donenfeld, Jason St. John, Jasper
+        St. Pierre, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Łukasz Stelmach,
+        Marcel Holtmann, Michael Scherer, Michal Sekletar, Mike
+        Gilbert, Samuli Suominen, Thomas Bächler, Thomas Hindoe
+        Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog,
+        Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2014-02-24
+        * A new component "systemd-networkd" has been added that can
+          be used to configure local network interfaces statically or
+          via DHCP. It is capable of bringing up bridges, VLANs, and
+          bonding. Currently, no hook-ups for interactive network
+          configuration are provided. Use this for your initrd,
+          container, embedded, or server setup if you need a simple,
+          yet powerful, network configuration solution. This
+          configuration subsystem is quite nifty, as it allows wildcard
+          hotplug matching in interfaces. For example, with a single
+          configuration snippet, you can configure that all Ethernet
+          interfaces showing up are automatically added to a bridge,
+          or similar. It supports link-sensing and more.
+        * A new tool "systemd-socket-proxyd" has been added which can
+          act as a bidirectional proxy for TCP sockets. This is
+          useful for adding socket activation support to services that
+          do not actually support socket activation, including virtual
+          machines and the like.
+        * Add a new tool to save/restore rfkill state on
+          shutdown/boot.
+        * Save/restore state of keyboard backlights in addition to
+          display backlights on shutdown/boot.
+        * udev learned a new SECLABEL{} construct to label device
+          nodes with a specific security label when they appear. For
+          now, only SECLABEL{selinux} is supported, but the syntax is
+          prepared for additional security frameworks.
+        * udev gained a new scheme to configure link-level attributes
+          from files in /etc/systemd/network/*.link. These files can
+          match against MAC address, device path, driver name and type,
+          and will apply attributes like the naming policy, link speed,
+          MTU, duplex settings, Wake-on-LAN settings, MAC address, MAC
+          address assignment policy (randomized, …).
+        * The configuration of network interface naming rules for
+          "permanent interface names" has changed: a new NamePolicy=
+          setting in the [Link] section of .link files determines the
+          priority of possible naming schemes (onboard, slot, MAC,
+          path). The default value of this setting is determined by
+          /usr/lib/net/links/ Old
+          80-net-name-slot.rules udev configuration file has been
+          removed, so local configuration overriding this file should
+          be adapted to override instead.
+        * When the User= switch is used in a unit file, also
+          initialize $SHELL= based on the user database entry.
+        * systemd no longer depends on libdbus. All communication is
+          now done with sd-bus, systemd's low-level bus library
+          implementation.
+        * kdbus support has been added to PID 1 itself. When kdbus is
+          enabled, this causes PID 1 to set up the system bus and
+          enable support for a new ".busname" unit type that
+          encapsulates bus name activation on kdbus. It works a little
+          bit like ".socket" units, except for bus names. A new
+          generator has been added that converts classic dbus1 service
+          activation files automatically into native systemd .busname
+          and .service units.
+        * sd-bus: add a light-weight vtable implementation that allows
+          defining objects on the bus with a simple static const
+          vtable array of its methods, signals and properties.
+        * systemd will not generate or install static dbus
+          introspection data anymore to /usr/share/dbus-1/interfaces,
+          as the precise format of these files is unclear, and
+          nothing makes use of it.
+        * A proxy daemon is now provided to proxy clients connecting
+          via classic D-Bus AF_UNIX sockets to kdbus, to provide full
+          compatibility with classic D-Bus.
+        * A bus driver implementation has been added that supports the
+          classic D-Bus bus driver calls on kdbus, also for
+          compatibility purposes.
+        * A new API "sd-event.h" has been added that implements a
+          minimal event loop API built around epoll. It provides a
+          couple of features that direct epoll usage is lacking:
+          prioritization of events, scales to large numbers of timer
+          events, per-event timer slack (accuracy), system-wide
+          coalescing of timer events, exit handlers, watchdog
+          supervision support using systemd's sd_notify() API, child
+          process handling.
+        * A new API "sd-rntl.h" has been added that provides an API
+          around the route netlink interface of the kernel, similar in
+          style to "sd-bus.h".
+        * A new API "sd-dhcp-client.h" has been added that provides a
+          small DHCPv4 client-side implementation. This is used by
+          "systemd-networkd".
+        * There is a new kernel command line option
+          "systemd.restore_state=0|1". When set to "0", none of the
+          systemd tools will restore saved runtime state to hardware
+          devices. More specifically, the rfkill and backlight states
+          are not restored.
+        * The FsckPassNo= compatibility option in mount/service units
+          has been removed. The fstab generator will now add the
+          necessary dependencies automatically, and does not require
+          PID1's support for that anymore.
+        * journalctl gained a new switch, --list-boots, that lists
+          recent boots with their times and boot IDs.
+        * The various tools like systemctl, loginctl, timedatectl,
+          busctl, systemd-run, … have gained a new switch "-M" to
+          connect to a specific, local OS container (as direct
+          connection, without requiring SSH). This works on any
+          container that is registered with machined, such as those
+          created by libvirt-lxc or nspawn.
+        * systemd-run and systemd-analyze also gained support for "-H"
+          to connect to remote hosts via SSH. This is particularly
+          useful for systemd-run because it enables queuing of jobs
+          onto remote systems.
+        * machinectl gained a new command "login" to open a getty
+          login in any local container. This works with any container
+          that is registered with machined (such as those created by
+          libvirt-lxc or nspawn), and which runs systemd inside.
+        * machinectl gained a new "reboot" command that may be used to
+          trigger a reboot on a specific container that is registered
+          with machined. This works on any container that runs an init
+          system of some kind.
+        * systemctl gained a new "list-timers" command to print a nice
+          listing of installed timer units with the times they elapse
+          next.
+        * Alternative reboot() parameters may now be specified on the
+          "systemctl reboot" command line and are passed to the
+          reboot() system call.
+        * systemctl gained a new --job-mode= switch to configure the
+          mode to queue a job with. This is a more generic version of
+          --fail, --irreversible, and --ignore-dependencies, which are
+          still available but not advertised anymore.
+        * /etc/systemd/system.conf gained new settings to configure
+          various default timeouts of units, as well as the default
+          start limit interval and burst. These may still be overridden
+          within each Unit.
+        * PID1 will now export on the bus profile data of the security
+          policy upload process (such as the SELinux policy upload to
+          the kernel).
+        * journald: when forwarding logs to the console, include
+          timestamps (following the setting in
+          /sys/module/printk/parameters/time).
+        * OnCalendar= in timer units now understands the special
+          strings "yearly" and "annually". (Both are equivalent)
+        * The accuracy of timer units is now configurable with the new
+          AccuracySec= setting. It defaults to 1min.
+        * A new dependency type JoinsNamespaceOf= has been added that
+          allows running two services within the same /tmp and network
+          namespace, if PrivateNetwork= or PrivateTmp= are used.
+        * A new command "cat" has been added to systemctl. It outputs
+          the original unit file of a unit, and concatenates the
+          contents of additional "drop-in" unit file snippets, so that
+          the full configuration is shown.
+        * systemctl now supports globbing on the various "list-xyz"
+          commands, like "list-units" or "list-sockets", as well as on
+          those commands which take multiple unit names.
+        * journalctl's --unit= switch gained support for globbing.
+        * All systemd daemons now make use of the watchdog logic so
+          that systemd automatically notices when they hang.
+        * If the $container_ttys environment variable is set,
+          getty-generator will automatically spawn a getty for each
+          listed tty. This is useful for container managers to request
+          login gettys to be spawned on as many ttys as needed.
+        * %h, %s, %U specifier support is not available anymore when
+          used in unit files for PID 1. This is because NSS calls are
+          not safe from PID 1. They stay available for --user
+          instances of systemd, and as special case for the root user.
+        * loginctl gained a new "--no-legend" switch to turn off output
+          of the legend text.
+        * The "sd-login.h" API gained three new calls:
+          sd_session_is_remote(), sd_session_get_remote_user(),
+          sd_session_get_remote_host() to query information about
+          remote sessions.
+        * The udev hardware database now also carries vendor/product
+          information of SDIO devices.
+        * The "sd-daemon.h" API gained a new sd_watchdog_enabled() to
+          determine whether watchdog notifications are requested by
+          the system manager.
+        * Socket-activated per-connection services now include a
+          short description of the connection parameters in the
+          description.
+        * tmpfiles gained a new "--boot" option. When this is not used,
+          only lines where the command character is not suffixed with
+          "!" are executed. When this option is specified, those
+          options are executed too. This partitions tmpfiles
+          directives into those that can be safely executed at any
+          time, and those which should be run only at boot (for
+          example, a line that creates /run/nologin).
+        * A new API "sd-resolve.h" has been added which provides a simple
+          asynchronous wrapper around glibc NSS hostname resolution
+          calls, such as getaddrinfo(). In contrast to glibc's
+          getaddrinfo_a(), it does not use signals. In contrast to most
+          other asynchronous name resolution libraries, this one does
+          not reimplement DNS, but reuses NSS, so that alternate
+          hostname resolution systems continue to work, such as mDNS,
+          LDAP, etc. This API is based on libasyncns, but it has been
+          cleaned up for inclusion in systemd.
+        * The APIs "sd-journal.h", "sd-login.h", "sd-id128.h",
+          "sd-daemon.h" are no longer found in individual libraries
+, Instead, we have
+          merged them into a single library,, which
+          provides all symbols. The reason for this is cyclic
+          dependencies, as these libraries tend to use each other's
+          symbols. So far, we have managed to workaround that by linking
+          a copy of a good part of our code into each of these
+          libraries again and again, which, however, makes certain
+          things hard to do, like sharing static variables. Also, it
+          substantially increases footprint. With this change, there
+          is only one library for the basic APIs systemd
+          provides. Also, "sd-bus.h", "sd-memfd.h", "sd-event.h",
+          "sd-rtnl.h", "sd-resolve.h", "sd-utf8.h" are found in this
+          library as well, however are subject to the --enable-kdbus
+          switch (see below). Note that "sd-dhcp-client.h" is not part
+          of this library (this is because it only consumes, never
+          provides, services of/to other APIs). To make the transition
+          easy from the separate libraries to the unified one, we
+          provide the --enable-compat-libs compile-time switch which
+          will generate stub libraries that are compatible with the
+          old ones but redirect all calls to the new one.
+        * All of the kdbus logic and the new APIs "sd-bus.h",
+          "sd-memfd.h", "sd-event.h", "sd-rtnl.h", "sd-resolve.h",
+          and "sd-utf8.h" are compile-time optional via the
+          "--enable-kdbus" switch, and they are not compiled in by
+          default. To make use of kdbus, you have to explicitly enable
+          the switch. Note however, that neither the kernel nor the
+          userspace API for all of this is considered stable yet. We
+          want to maintain the freedom to still change the APIs for
+          now. By specifying this build-time switch, you acknowledge
+          that you are aware of the instability of the current
+          APIs.
+        * Also, note that while kdbus is pretty much complete,
+          it lacks one thing: proper policy support. This means you
+          can build a fully working system with all features; however,
+          it will be highly insecure. Policy support will be added in
+          one of the next releases, at the same time that we will
+          declare the APIs stable.
+        * When the kernel command line argument "kdbus" is specified,
+          systemd will automatically load the kdbus.ko kernel module. At
+          this stage of development, it is only useful for testing kdbus
+          and should not be used in production. Note: if "--enable-kdbus"
+          is specified, and the kdbus.ko kernel module is available, and
+          "kdbus" is added to the kernel command line, the entire system
+          runs with kdbus instead of dbus-daemon, with the above mentioned
+          problem of missing the system policy enforcement. Also a future
+          version of kdbus.ko or a newer systemd will not be compatible with
+          each other, and will unlikely be able to boot the machine if only
+          one of them is updated.
+        * systemctl gained a new "import-environment" command which
+          uploads the caller's environment (or parts thereof) into the
+          service manager so that it is inherited by services started
+          by the manager. This is useful to upload variables like
+          $DISPLAY into the user service manager.
+        * A new PrivateDevices= switch has been added to service units
+          which allows running a service with a namespaced /dev
+          directory that does not contain any device nodes for
+          physical devices. More specifically, it only includes devices
+          such as /dev/null, /dev/urandom, and /dev/zero which are API
+          entry points.
+        * logind has been extended to support behaviour like VT
+          switching on seats that do not support a VT. This makes
+          multi-session available on seats that are not the first seat
+          (seat0), and on systems where kernel support for VTs has
+          been disabled at compile-time.
+        * If a process holds a delay lock for system sleep or shutdown
+          and fails to release it in time, we will now log its
+          identity. This makes it easier to identify processes that
+          cause slow suspends or power-offs.
+        * When parsing /etc/crypttab, support for a new key-slot=
+          option as supported by Debian is added. It allows indicating
+          which LUKS slot to use on disk, speeding up key loading.
+        * The sd_journal_sendv() API call has been checked and
+          officially declared to be async-signal-safe so that it may
+          be invoked from signal handlers for logging purposes.
+        * Boot-time status output is now enabled automatically after a
+          short timeout if boot does not progress, in order to give
+          the user an indication what she or he is waiting for.
+        * The boot-time output has been improved to show how much time
+          remains until jobs expire.
+        * The KillMode= switch in service units gained a new possible
+          value "mixed". If set, and the unit is shut down, then the
+          initial SIGTERM signal is sent only to the main daemon
+          process, while the following SIGKILL signal is sent to
+          all remaining processes of the service.
+        * When a scope unit is registered, a new property "Controller"
+          may be set. If set to a valid bus name, systemd will send a
+          RequestStop() signal to this name when it would like to shut
+          down the scope. This may be used to hook manager logic into
+          the shutdown logic of scope units. Also, scope units may now
+          be put in a special "abandoned" state, in which case the
+          manager process which created them takes no further
+          responsibilities for it.
+        * When reading unit files, systemd will now verify
+          the access mode of these files, and warn about certain
+          suspicious combinations. This has been added to make it
+          easier to track down packaging bugs where unit files are
+          marked executable or world-writable.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new "--setenv=" switch to set
+          container-wide environment variables. The similar option in
+          systemd-activate was renamed from "--environment=" to
+          "--setenv=" for consistency.
+        * systemd-nspawn has been updated to create a new kdbus domain
+          for each container that is invoked, thus allowing each
+          container to have its own set of system and user buses,
+          independent of the host.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --drop-capability= switch to run
+          the container with less capabilities than the default. Both
+          --drop-capability= and --capability= now take the special
+          string "all" for dropping or keeping all capabilities.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained new switches for executing containers
+          with specific SELinux labels set.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --quiet switch to not generate
+          any additional output but the container's own console
+          output.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --share-system switch to run a
+          container without PID namespacing enabled.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --register= switch to control
+          whether the container is registered with systemd-machined or
+          not. This is useful for containers that do not run full
+          OS images, but only specific apps.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --keep-unit which may be used
+          when invoked as the only program from a service unit, and
+          results in registration of the unit service itself in
+          systemd-machined, instead of a newly opened scope unit.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --network-interface= switch for
+          moving arbitrary interfaces to the container. The new
+          --network-veth switch creates a virtual Ethernet connection
+          between host and container. The new --network-bridge=
+          switch then allows assigning the host side of this virtual
+          Ethernet connection to a bridge device.
+        * systemd-nspawn gained a new --personality= switch for
+          setting the kernel personality for the container. This is
+          useful when running a 32-bit container on a 64-bit host. A
+          similar option Personality= is now also available for service
+          units to use.
+        * logind will now also track a "Desktop" identifier for each
+          session which encodes the desktop environment of it. This is
+          useful for desktop environments that want to identify
+          multiple running sessions of itself easily.
+        * A new SELinuxContext= setting for service units has been
+          added that allows setting a specific SELinux execution
+          context for a service.
+        * Most systemd client tools will now honour $SYSTEMD_LESS for
+          settings of the "less" pager. By default, these tools will
+          override $LESS to allow certain operations to work, such as
+          jump-to-the-end. With $SYSTEMD_LESS, it is possible to
+          influence this logic.
+        * systemd's "seccomp" hook-up has been changed to make use of
+          the libseccomp library instead of using its own
+          implementation. This has benefits for portability among
+          other things.
+        * For usage together with SystemCallFilter=, a new
+          SystemCallErrorNumber= setting has been introduced that
+          allows configuration of a system error number to be returned
+          on filtered system calls, instead of immediately killing the
+          process. Also, SystemCallArchitectures= has been added to
+          limit access to system calls of a particular architecture
+          (in order to turn off support for unused secondary
+          architectures). There is also a global
+          SystemCallArchitectures= setting in system.conf now to turn
+          off support for non-native system calls system-wide.
+        * systemd requires a kernel with a working name_to_handle_at(),
+          please see the kernel config requirements in the README file.
+        Contributions from: Adam Williamson, Alex Jia, Anatol Pomozov,
+        Ansgar Burchardt, AppleBloom, Auke Kok, Bastien Nocera,
+        Chengwei Yang, Christian Seiler, Colin Guthrie, Colin Walters,
+        Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Buch, Daniele Medri, Daniel J
+        Walsh, Daniel Mack, Dan McGee, Dave Reisner, David Coppa,
+        David Herrmann, David Strauss, Djalal Harouni, Dmitry Pisklov,
+        Elia Pinto, Florian Weimer, George McCollister, Goffredo
+        Baroncelli, Greg Kroah-Hartman, Hendrik Brueckner, Igor
+        Zhbanov, Jan Engelhardt, Jan Janssen, Jason A. Donenfeld,
+        Jason St. John, Jasper St. Pierre, Jóhann B. Guðmundsson, Jose
+        Ignacio Naranjo, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers, Kristian Høgsberg,
+        Lennart Poettering, Lubomir Rintel, Lukas Nykryn, Lukasz
+        Skalski, Łukasz Stelmach, Luke Shumaker, Mantas Mikulėnas,
+        Marc-Antoine Perennou, Marcel Holtmann, Marcos Felipe Rasia de
+        Mello, Marko Myllynen, Martin Pitt, Matthew Monaco, Michael
+        Marineau, Michael Scherer, Michał Górny, Michal Sekletar,
+        Michele Curti, Oleksii Shevchuk, Olivier Brunel, Patrik Flykt,
+        Pavel Holica, Raudi, Richard Marko, Ronny Chevalier, Sébastien
+        Luttringer, Sergey Ptashnick, Shawn Landden, Simon Peeters,
+        Stefan Beller, Susant Sahani, Sylvain Plantefeve, Sylvia Else,
+        Tero Roponen, Thomas Bächler, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen,
+        Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Unai Uribarri, Václav
+        Pavlín, Vincent Batts, WaLyong Cho, William Giokas, Yang
+        Zhiyong, Yin Kangkai, Yuxuan Shui, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2014-02-20
+        * logind has gained support for facilitating privileged input
+          and drm device access for unprivileged clients. This work is
+          useful to allow Wayland display servers (and similar
+          programs, such as kmscon) to run under the user's ID and
+          access input and drm devices which are normally
+          protected. When this is used (and the kernel is new enough)
+          logind will "mute" IO on the file descriptors passed to
+          Wayland as long as it is in the background and "unmute" it
+          if it returns into the foreground. This allows secure
+          session switching without allowing background sessions to
+          eavesdrop on input and display data. This also introduces
+          session switching support if VT support is turned off in the
+          kernel, and on seats that are not seat0.
+        * A new kernel command line option luks.options= is understood
+          now which allows specifying LUKS options for usage for LUKS
+          encrypted partitions specified with luks.uuid=.
+        * tmpfiles.d(5) snippets may now use specifier expansion in
+          path names. More specifically %m, %b, %H, %v, are now
+          replaced by the local machine id, boot id, hostname, and
+          kernel version number.
+        * A new tmpfiles.d(5) command "m" has been introduced which
+          may be used to change the owner/group/access mode of a file
+          or directory if it exists, but do nothing if it does not.
+        * This release removes high-level support for the
+          MemorySoftLimit= cgroup setting. The underlying kernel
+          cgroup attribute memory.soft_limit= is currently badly
+          designed and likely to be removed from the kernel API in its
+          current form, hence we should not expose it for now.
+        * The memory.use_hierarchy cgroup attribute is now enabled for
+          all cgroups systemd creates in the memory cgroup
+          hierarchy. This option is likely to be come the built-in
+          default in the kernel anyway, and the non-hierarchical mode
+          never made much sense in the intrinsically hierarchical
+          cgroup system.
+        * A new field _SYSTEMD_SLICE= is logged along with all journal
+          messages containing the slice a message was generated
+          from. This is useful to allow easy per-customer filtering of
+          logs among other things.
+        * systemd-journald will no longer adjust the group of journal
+          files it creates to the "systemd-journal" group. Instead we
+          rely on the journal directory to be owned by the
+          "systemd-journal" group, and its setgid bit set, so that the
+          kernel file system layer will automatically enforce that
+          journal files inherit this group assignment. The reason for
+          this change is that we cannot allow NSS look-ups from
+          journald which would be necessary to resolve
+          "systemd-journal" to a numeric GID, because this might
+          create deadlocks if NSS involves synchronous queries to
+          other daemons (such as nscd, or sssd) which in turn are
+          logging clients of journald and might block on it, which
+          would then dead lock. A tmpfiles.d(5) snippet included in
+          systemd will make sure the setgid bit and group are
+          properly set on the journal directory if it exists on every
+          boot. However, we recommend adjusting it manually after
+          upgrades too (or from RPM scriptlets), so that the change is
+          not delayed until next reboot.
+        * Backlight and random seed files in /var/lib/ have moved into
+          the /var/lib/systemd/ directory, in order to centralize all
+          systemd generated files in one directory.
+        * Boot time performance measurements (as displayed by
+          "systemd-analyze" for example) will now read ACPI 5.0 FPDT
+          performance information if that's available to determine how
+          much time BIOS and boot loader initialization required. With
+          a sufficiently new BIOS you hence no longer need to boot
+          with Gummiboot to get access to such information.
+        Contributions from: Andrey Borzenkov, Chen Jie, Colin Walters,
+        Cristian Rodríguez, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, David
+        Mackey, David Strauss, Eelco Dolstra, Evan Callicoat, Gao
+        feng, Harald Hoyer, Jimmie Tauriainen, Kay Sievers, Lennart
+        Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Martin Pitt,
+        Michael Scherer, Michał Górny, Mike Gilbert, Patrick McCarty,
+        Sebastian Ott, Tom Gundersen, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
+        — Berlin, 2013-10-02
+        * The Restart= option for services now understands a new
+          on-watchdog setting, which will restart the service
+          automatically if the service stops sending out watchdog keep
+          alive messages (as configured with WatchdogSec=).
+        * The getty generator (which is responsible for bringing up a
+          getty on configured serial consoles) will no longer only
+          start a getty on the primary kernel console but on all
+          others, too. This makes the order in which console= is
+          specified on the kernel command line less important.
+        * libsystemd-logind gained a new sd_session_get_vt() call to
+          retrieve the VT number of a session.
+        * If the option "tries=0" is set for an entry of /etc/crypttab
+          its passphrase is queried indefinitely instead of any
+          maximum number of tries.
+        * If a service with a configure PID file terminates its PID
+          file will now be removed automatically if it still exists
+          afterwards. This should put an end to stale PID files.
+        * systemd-run will now also take relative binary path names
+          for execution and no longer insists on absolute paths.
+        * InaccessibleDirectories= and ReadOnlyDirectories= now take
+          paths that are optionally prefixed with "-" to indicate that
+          it should not be considered a failure if they do not exist.
+        * journalctl -o (and similar commands) now understands a new
+          output mode "short-precise", it is similar to "short" but
+          shows timestamps with usec accuracy.
+        * The option "discard" (as known from Debian) is now
+          synonymous to "allow-discards" in /etc/crypttab. In fact,
+          "discard" is preferred now (since it is easier to remember
+          and type).
+        * Some licensing clean-ups were made, so that more code is now
+          LGPL-2.1 licensed than before.
+        * A minimal tool to save/restore the display backlight
+          brightness across reboots has been added. It will store the
+          backlight setting as late as possible at shutdown, and
+          restore it as early as possible during reboot.
+        * A logic to automatically discover and enable home and swap
+          partitions on GPT disks has been added. With this in place
+          /etc/fstab becomes optional for many setups as systemd can
+          discover certain partitions located on the root disk
+          automatically. Home partitions are recognized under their
+          GPT type ID 933ac7e12eb44f13b8440e14e2aef915. Swap
+          partitions are recognized under their GPT type ID
+          0657fd6da4ab43c484e50933c84b4f4f.
+        * systemd will no longer pass any environment from the kernel
+          or initrd to system services. If you want to set an
+          environment for all services, do so via the kernel command
+          line systemd.setenv= assignment.
+        * The systemd-sysctl tool no longer natively reads the file
+          /etc/sysctl.conf. If desired, the file should be symlinked
+          from /etc/sysctl.d/99-sysctl.conf. Apart from providing
+          legacy support by a symlink rather than built-in code, it
+          also makes the otherwise hidden order of application of the
+          different files visible. (Note that this partly reverts to a
+          pre-198 application order of sysctl knobs!)
+        * The "systemctl set-log-level" and "systemctl dump" commands
+          have been moved to systemd-analyze.
+        * systemd-run learned the new --remain-after-exit switch,
+          which causes the scope unit not to be cleaned up
+          automatically after the process terminated.
+        * tmpfiles learned a new --exclude-prefix= switch to exclude
+          certain paths from operation.
+        * journald will now automatically flush all messages to disk
+          as soon as a message at the log level CRIT, ALERT or EMERG
+          is received.
+        Contributions from: Andrew Cook, Brandon Philips, Christian
+        Hesse, Christoph Junghans, Colin Walters, Daniel Schaal,
+        Daniel Wallace, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Gao feng, George
+        McCollister, Giovanni Campagna, Hannes Reinecke, Harald Hoyer,