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// Copyright (c) HashiCorp, Inc.
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MPL-2.0
package command
import (
var (
_ cli.Command = (*WriteCommand)(nil)
_ cli.CommandAutocomplete = (*WriteCommand)(nil)
// MFAMethodInfo contains the information about an MFA method
type MFAMethodInfo struct {
methodID string
methodType string
usePasscode bool
// WriteCommand is a Command that puts data into the Vault.
type WriteCommand struct {
flagForce bool
testStdin io.Reader // for tests
func (c *WriteCommand) Synopsis() string {
return "Write data, configuration, and secrets"
func (c *WriteCommand) Help() string {
helpText := `
Usage: vault write [options] PATH [DATA K=V...]
Writes data to Vault at the given path. The data can be credentials, secrets,
configuration, or arbitrary data. The specific behavior of this command is
determined at the thing mounted at the path.
Data is specified as "key=value" pairs. If the value begins with an "@", then
it is loaded from a file. If the value is "-", Vault will read the value from
Persist data in the generic secrets engine:
$ vault write secret/my-secret foo=bar
Create a new encryption key in the transit secrets engine:
$ vault write -f transit/keys/my-key
Upload an AWS IAM policy from a file on disk:
$ vault write aws/roles/ops policy=@policy.json
Configure access to Consul by providing an access token:
$ echo $MY_TOKEN | vault write consul/config/access token=-
For a full list of examples and paths, please see the documentation that
corresponds to the secret engines in use.
` + c.Flags().Help()
return strings.TrimSpace(helpText)
func (c *WriteCommand) Flags() *FlagSets {
set := c.flagSet(FlagSetHTTP | FlagSetOutputField | FlagSetOutputFormat)
f := set.NewFlagSet("Command Options")
Name: "force",
Aliases: []string{"f"},
Target: &c.flagForce,
Default: false,
EnvVar: "",
Completion: complete.PredictNothing,
Usage: "Allow the operation to continue with no key=value pairs. This " +
"allows writing to keys that do not need or expect data.",
return set
func (c *WriteCommand) AutocompleteArgs() complete.Predictor {
// Return an anything predictor here. Without a way to access help
// information, we don't know what paths we could write to.
return complete.PredictAnything
func (c *WriteCommand) AutocompleteFlags() complete.Flags {
return c.Flags().Completions()
func (c *WriteCommand) Run(args []string) int {
f := c.Flags()
if err := f.Parse(args); err != nil {
return 1
args = f.Args()
switch {
case len(args) < 1:
c.UI.Error(fmt.Sprintf("Not enough arguments (expected 1, got %d)", len(args)))
return 1
case len(args) == 1 && !c.flagForce:
c.UI.Error("Must supply data or use -force")
return 1
// Pull our fake stdin if needed
stdin := (io.Reader)(os.Stdin)
if c.testStdin != nil {
stdin = c.testStdin
path := sanitizePath(args[0])
data, err := parseArgsData(stdin, args[1:])
if err != nil {
c.UI.Error(fmt.Sprintf("Failed to parse K=V data: %s", err))
return 1
client, err := c.Client()
if err != nil {
return 2
secret, err := client.Logical().Write(path, data)
return handleWriteSecretOutput(c.BaseCommand, path, secret, err)
func handleWriteSecretOutput(c *BaseCommand, path string, secret *api.Secret, err error) int {
if err != nil {
c.UI.Error(fmt.Sprintf("Error writing data to %s: %s", path, err))
if secret != nil {
OutputSecret(c.UI, secret)
return 2
if secret == nil {
// Don't output anything unless using the "table" format
if Format(c.UI) == "table" {
c.UI.Info(fmt.Sprintf("Success! Data written to: %s", path))
return 0
// Currently, if there is only one MFA method configured, the login
// request is validated interactively
methodInfo := c.getInteractiveMFAMethodInfo(secret)
if methodInfo != nil {
secret, err = c.validateMFA(secret.Auth.MFARequirement.MFARequestID, *methodInfo)
if err != nil {
return 2
} else if c.getMFAValidationRequired(secret) {
c.UI.Warn(wrapAtLength("A login request was issued that is subject to "+
"MFA validation. Please make sure to validate the login by sending another "+
"request to sys/mfa/validate endpoint.") + "\n")
// Handle single field output
if c.flagField != "" {
return PrintRawField(c.UI, secret, c.flagField)
return OutputSecret(c.UI, secret)