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<?xml version='1.0'?> <!--*-nxml-*-->
<!DOCTYPE refentry PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
<!-- SPDX-License-Identifier: LGPL-2.1-or-later -->
<refentry id="systemd-sysusers"
<refpurpose>Allocate system users and groups</refpurpose>
<arg choice="opt" rep="repeat">OPTIONS</arg>
<arg choice="opt" rep="repeat"><replaceable>CONFIGFILE</replaceable></arg>
<para><command>systemd-sysusers</command> creates system users and
groups, based on the file format and location specified in
<para>If invoked with no arguments, it applies all directives from all files
found in the directories specified by
When invoked with positional arguments, if option
<option>--replace=<replaceable>PATH</replaceable></option> is specified, arguments
specified on the command line are used instead of the configuration file
<replaceable>PATH</replaceable>. Otherwise, just the configuration specified by
the command line arguments is executed. The string <literal>-</literal> may be
specified instead of a filename to instruct <command>systemd-sysusers</command>
to read the configuration from standard input. If only the basename of a file is
specified, all configuration directories are searched for a matching file and
the file found that has the highest priority is executed.</para>
<para>The following options are understood:</para>
<listitem><para>Takes a directory path as an argument. All
paths will be prefixed with the given alternate
<replaceable>root</replaceable> path, including config search
paths. </para></listitem>
<listitem><para>Takes a path to a disk image file or block device node. If specified all operations
are applied to file system in the indicated disk image. This is similar to <option>--root=</option>
but operates on file systems stored in disk images or block devices. The disk image should either
contain just a file system or a set of file systems within a GPT partition table, following the
<ulink url="">Discoverable Partitions
Specification</ulink>. For further information on supported disk images, see
switch of the same name.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>When this option is given, one ore more positional arguments
must be specified. All configuration files found in the directories listed in
will be read, and the configuration given on the command line will be
handled instead of and with the same priority as the configuration file
<para>This option is intended to be used when package installation scripts
are running and files belonging to that package are not yet available on
disk, so their contents must be given on the command line, but the admin
configuration might already exist and should be given higher priority.
<title>RPM installation script for radvd</title>
<programlisting>echo 'u radvd - "radvd daemon"' | \
systemd-sysusers --replace=/usr/lib/sysusers.d/radvd.conf -</programlisting>
<para>This will create the radvd user as if
<filename>/usr/lib/sysusers.d/radvd.conf</filename> was already on disk.
An admin might override the configuration specified on the command line by
placing <filename>/etc/sysusers.d/radvd.conf</filename> or even
<para>Note that this is the expanded form, and when used in a package, this
would be written using a macro with "radvd" and a file containing the
configuration line as arguments.</para>
<listitem><para>Treat each positional argument as a separate configuration
line instead of a file name.</para></listitem>
<xi:include href="standard-options.xml" xpointer="cat-config" />
<xi:include href="standard-options.xml" xpointer="no-pager" />
<xi:include href="standard-options.xml" xpointer="help" />
<xi:include href="standard-options.xml" xpointer="version" />
<para><command>systemd-sysusers</command> supports the service credentials logic as implemented by
<varname>LoadCredential=</varname>/<varname>SetCredential=</varname> (see
<citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> for
details). The following credentials are used when passed in:</para>
<listitem><para>A UNIX hashed password string to use for the specified user, when creating an entry
for it. This is particularly useful for the <literal>root</literal> user as it allows provisioning
the default root password to use via a unit file drop-in or from a container manager passing in this
credential. Note that setting this credential has no effect if the specified user account already
exists. This credential is hence primarily useful in first boot scenarios or systems that are fully
stateless and come up with an empty <filename>/etc/</filename> on every boot.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>Similar to <literal>passwd.hashed-password.<replaceable>user</replaceable></literal>
but expect a literal, plaintext password, which is then automatically hashed before used for the user
account. If both the hashed and the plaintext credential are specified for the same user the
former takes precedence. It's generally recommended to specify the hashed version; however in test
environments with weaker requirements on security it might be easier to pass passwords in plaintext
<listitem><para>Specifies the shell binary to use for the specified account when creating it.</para></listitem>
<para>Note that by default the <filename>systemd-sysusers.service</filename> unit file is set up to
inherit the <literal>passwd.hashed-password.root</literal>,
<literal>passwd.plaintext-password.root</literal> and <literal></literal> credentials
from the service manager. Thus, when invoking a container with an unpopulated <filename>/etc/</filename>
for the first time it is possible to configure the root user's password to be <literal>systemd</literal>
like this:</para>
<para><programlisting># systemd-nspawn --image=… --set-credential=password.hashed-password.root:'$y$j9T$yAuRJu1o5HioZAGDYPU5d.$F64ni6J2y2nNQve90M/p0ZP0ECP/qqzipNyaY9fjGpC' …</programlisting></para>
<para>Note again that the data specified in these credentials is consulted only when creating an account
for the first time, it may not be used for changing the password or shell of an account that already
<para>Use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mkpasswd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>
for generating UNIX password hashes from the command line.</para>
<title>Exit status</title>
<para>On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code
<title>See Also</title>
<ulink url="">Users, Groups, UIDs and GIDs on systemd systems</ulink>,